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hnip² AÂt^m³k kl\¯nsâ ]p{Xn

BÀ¨v _nj]vv amÀ tPmk^v ]ƯnÂ

""kl\¯nsâ ]p{Xn'' F¶ \nebnemWv hn AÂt^m³km½ F§pw Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. thZ\bpw kl\hpw F¶pw AÂt^m³km½bpsS PohnX¯nsâ `mKambncp¶p. kz´w ssZhhnfn kwc£n¡m³ Cfw a\kn tXm¶nb _p²nbmbncp¶p Xobn NmSpI F¶Xv. AXv ZoÀLImes¯ thZ\bv¡pw _p²nap«n\pw CSbm¡n. BZywXs¶ h¶p`hn¨ amXmhnsâ hntbmKw, k\ymk¯n\p thWvSn \mSpw hoSpw hn«pt]mIp¶Xv; FÃmw thZ\bv¡pw kl\¯n\pw Ifsamcp¡pIbmbncp¶p. k\ymk PohnXmcw`w apXte ]n´pSÀ¶ tcmKmhØbpw _p²nap«pIfpw Gsd t¢i§fpw DWvSm¡nbncn¡Ww. Hchkc¯n XpScm³¸äptam F¶ kwibwt]mepw DWvSmbXv Xo{hamb thZ\bv¡v CSbm¡nbncn¡Ww. kaqlPohnXw Hcn¡epw Ffp¸aÃ. aäpÅhcpsS hnaÀi\hpw ]cnlmkhpsaÃmw A§s\sbmcp cwK¯v km[mcWamWv. AXpw thZ\bv¡v \nZm\ambncn¡mw. ]t£ B thZ\Ifpw ]cnlmk§fpsaÃmw AÂt^m³km½sb kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw hnip²nbpsS amäv sXfnbn¡m\pÅ Ahkc§fmbn. am{Xaà aäpÅhcpsS thZ\IÄ {]mÀYn¨v Gäphm§m\pw AÂt^m³km½bv¡mbn.

PohnX¯n ZpJ§fpw thZ\Ifpw kzm`mhnIw

thZ\Ifpw ZpJ§fpw AhbpsS kmlNcy§fpw a\pjyPohnX¯n km[mcWamWv. {]Xo£nt¡WvSXpamW.v a\pjysâbpw {]]©¯nsâbpw ]cnanXnIÄ Ah A\nhmcyam¡n¯oÀ¡p¶p. a\pjy³ B{Kln¡p¶sXÃmw e`yamInÃ, e`yambmepw B{Kln¡p¶{X kwXr]vXn \ÂIpIbpanÃ. am{Xaà BZnamXm]nXm¡fpsS hogv¨bpsS ^eambn a\pjy³ ssZh¯n \n¶IepIbpw A§s\ A hsâ _ԧġv ssiYneyw DWvSm¡p¶ ØnXn hntijhpw kwPmXambntÃ? {]IrXnbpw a\pjy\pw Ft¸mgpw \½psS CjvS¯n\pw B{Kl¯n\pw hg§nbnsöncn¡pw. tcmKhpw Iel§fpw hntZzjhpsaÃmw CSIeÀ¶ temI¯nemWv \mw Pohnt¡WvSXv. Xn·bpsS iànIÄ kwLSnXambpw C¶v {]hÀ¯n¡p¶p F¶Xpw hkvXpX Xs¶. \ap¡v CjvSapsWvS¦nepw Csænepw kl\w PohnX¯n DWvSmtbXocq. {]IrXnbpw a\pjy\pw \ap¡v FXncmbn amdp¶ [mcmfw kmlNcy§Ä DWvSmImw.

ssiYneyhpw i{XpXbpsaÃmw PohnX¯nsâ `mKambncn¡bmWv. BZnamXm]nXm¡·mcpsS ]m]¯n\p tijw kÀ¸¯n\pw, kv{Xobv¡pw, ]pcpj\pw \evInb in£bn Cu sshcp²ys¯¡pdn¨mWv ssZhw kqNn¸nXv. ""\n\¡pw kv{Xobv¡pw X½nepw \nsâ k´Xnbpw AhfpsS k´Xnbpw X½nepw Rm³ i{XpX Dfhm¡pw. AhÄ \nsâ Xesb sRcp¡pw'' (D¸¯n 3:15) F¶mWv ssZhw kÀ¸t¯mSp ]dªXv. kv{XotbmSmIs« ""\o \nsâ `À¯mhnsâ A[o\Xbnembncn¡pw Ah\v \nsâta B[n]Xyw DWvSmbncn¡pIbpw sN¿pw'' (D¸¯n 3:16) F¶p ]dªp. BZt¯mSv ]dªX:v ""\o \nsâ `mcybpsS hm¡v tIÄ¡pIbpw `£n¡cpsX¶v Rm³ Iev¸n¨ncp¶ hr£¯nÂ\n¶v `£n¡pIbpw sNbvXXn\m \ns¶ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw `qan i]n¡s¸«XmIs«. \nsâ PohnXImesams¡bpw A[zm\n¨p `qanbn \n¶pw \o `£n¡Ww. AXv \n\¡v apÅpIfpw apÄs¨SnIfpw apf¸n¡pw. `qanbnse kky§Ä \o `£n¡pIbpw sN¿pw. \o a®nÂ\n¶v FSp¡s¸«h\mIbm \o a®ntebv¡v ]n´ncnbpw hsc \nsâ s\änbnse hnbÀ¸vsImWvSp \o A¸w `£n¡pw. F´psImWvS¶m \o s]mSnbmIp¶p. s]mSnbntebv¡v Xs¶ ]n´ncnbpw'' (D¸¯n 3:17þ19) a\pjy\pw a\pjy\pw X½nepw, a\pjy\pw {]]©hpw X½nepapÅ _ÔhpsaÃmw inYneamIp¶ Nn{XamWv ChnsS sXfnªv hcp¶Xv. CXmWv C¶v ssZ\wZn\ bmYmÀYyambn \mw ImWp¶Xpw.

Cu ssiYney¯nsâ ^eamWv C¶s¯ thZ\Ifpw CSÀ¨Ifpw BIpeXIfpw F¶p ]dªm AXn sXänÃ. ASp¯\mfn Hcp t\Xmhv AÔcmb Ip«nIÄ ]Tn¡p¶ Hcp tI{µ¯nÂs¨¶v Ahsc t\m¡nbtijw AhnsS IqSnbncp¶htcmS,v ssZhapWvSmbncp¶psh¦n C§s\ ChÀ¡v kw`hn¡pambncpt¶m F¶v tNmZn¨Xmbn tI«p. Ipäaä ]cnWmahmZs¯ B[mcam¡p¶ \ncoizchmZnIÄXs¶ F§s\ B Ip«nIsf Bizkn¸n¡ptam Bthm? temI¯nepWvSmIp¶ ZpchØIÄ¡v ASnØm\ImcWsas´¶v apIfn NqWvSn¡m«nbtÃm. krjvSnIfpsS ]cnanXnbpw ]m]¯nsâ km¶n[yhpw C¯cw ZpchØbv¡v tlXp¡fmbn NqWvSn¡m«phm³ hnizmknIÄ¡p Ignbpw. am{Xaà C§s\ IpdhpIfpÅhtcmSp A\p`mhhpw Ahsc ip{iqjn¡m\pÅ k¶²Xbpw AhÀ¡pWvSmIWsa¶mWv hnizmk¯nsâ\n_Ô\: IqSmsX, ]cnanXnIÄ¡pÅn AhcpsS PohnXw AÀY]qÀWam¡m\pÅ tkh\w \ÂIm\pw hnizmknIÄ F¶pw ]Wns¸Sp¶p F¶pÅXpw hkvXpXbmWv.

AÂt^m³km½bpsS kl\w \aps¡mcp amXrI

t¢i§sf F§s\ t\cnSWsa¶mWv AÂt^m³km½ \s½ ]Tn¸n¡p¶Xv. kl\¯nsâ aqeyw hnip² \ap¡v Im«n¯cp¶pWvSv. AÂt^m³km½ kl\s¯ hnip²nbpsS c£mamÀKam¡n. aäpÅhÀ¡v thWvSnbpÅ {]mÀY\bpsS iànbm¡n¯oÀ¯p, temI¯nsâ ]m]¯n\pÅ ]cnlmcam¡n¯oÀ¯p, aäpÅhcpsS tcmKim´n¡pw,kzØXbv¡pw D]m[nbm¡n amän. A§s\ kl\¯nsâ al\ob amXrI temI¯n\p \ÂIn. Cu amXrIbv¡v C¶v Gsd {]kànbpWvSv.

tIhew `uXnIamb ImgvN¸mSn thZ\bv¡pw kl\¯n\pw AÀYw IsWvS¯m³ {]bmkapWvSv. \jvS§fpsSbpw thZ\bpsSbpw \Sphn tPm_ns\t¸mse ssZhs¯¯s¶ tNmZywsN¿m³ ]eÀ¡pw tXm¶ntb¡mw.F¶m tPm_nsâ tNmZy¯n\pÅ adp]Sn CutimbnemWv \ap¡v e`n¡pI. hgnsXänt¸mb \s½ ssZh¯nsâ ]¡tebv¡Sp¸n¡m³ AhnSp¶v kzoIcn¨ amÀKw kl\¯ntâbpw XymK¯nsâbpamWv.

ImcpWyhm\pw kvt\l\n[nbpamb ssZhw \½psS c£bv¡mbn Xs¶¯s¶ iq\y\m¡n kl\¯nepw XymK¯nepamWv \½psS c£ km[n¨Xv. ssZhw kvt\lamIps¶¦n B kvt\l¯nsâ amäv \ap¡v A\p`hthZyam¡nbXv CutimbpsS iq\yhXvIcW¯neqsSbpw ]oUm\p`h¯neqsSbpw acW¯neqsSbpsaÃmamWv. A\pkcWhpw ]oUmkl\hpw hgnbmWv AhnSp¶v \½psS c£ km[n¨sX¦n AXp kmwioIcn¡m\pw asämcp amÀKanÃ. thZ\tbbpw kl\t¯bpw \½psS c£bpsS D]m[nbm¡namämsa¶mWv AhnSp¶v \s½ ]Tn¸n¨Xv. Xs¶ A\pKan¡m\m{Kln¡p¶hÀ X§fpsS IpcnipsaSp¯v Xs¶ A\pKan¡Wsa¶mWv AhnSp¶v Bhiys¸«Xv. kvt\l¯nsâ amäv \mapw sXfnbnt¡WvSXv XymK¯neqsSbpw kl\¯neqsSbpamWv. PohnXw ssZhhpambn sFIys¸Sm\pw A§s\ hnip²oIcn¡s¸Sm\papÅXmWv. AhnSpt¯mSpIqSn kln¡p¶hcmWv AhnSpt¯mSpIqSn alXzoIcn¡s¸Sp¶Xv. CutimtbmSp tNÀ¶pÅ kl\w c£mIc IÀa¯n \s½bpw ]¦pImcm¡p¶p.

Xsâ {]mÀY\tbmSv kl\hpw tNÀ¯Xp sImWvSmWv AÂt^m³km½bpsS {]mÀY\ At\IÀ¡p klmbIcambXv, AZv`pXIcamb tcmKim´nIÄ¡p t]mepw ImcWambXv. kl\¯nsâ \SphnepÅ B {]mÀY\bpsS ^eadnªhcmW,v BZyw Ip«nIfpw ]n¶oSv CSapdnbmsX aämfpIfpw, hnip²bpsS {]mÀY\mklmbw tXSn h¶Xv. hn. AÂt^m³km½bpsS {]mÀY\mklmbw tXSn BfpIÄ acWtijhpw HmSn¡qSnbXv BcpsSbpw {]NcW tImemle§fpsS ^eambn«Ãmbncp¶p. AXv tI«dnªv, tI«dnªv DWvSmb P\{]hmlambncp¶p. Xsâ \ma¯n kln¨hsc Cutim Hcp¡epw Dt]£n¡nÃ.

kl\w kvt\l¯nsâ cq]w

kl\hpw XymKhpanÃmsX BÀ¡pw ktlmZc§sf bYmÀYambn kvt\ln¡m\mhnÃ. aäpÅhcpsS \·sb {][m\ambn ImWp¶hÀ¡v ]eXpw Dt]£nt¡mWvSXmbn hcpw, adt¡WvSXmbn hcpw. \à kadmb¡mcsâ D]abn hgnbn Ahi\mbn apdnthäpInS¶bmsf iadmb\v kz´w kuIcysaÃmw ad¶v k{X¯nemt¡WvSnh¶p. aäpÅhÀ¡v AhcpsS kuIcyw IqSpX³ {][m\ambXv sImWvSv apdnthähs\ AhKWn¨v AhÀ IS¶pt]mbn. I£¯nencn¡p¶Xv hogmsX D¯c¯nencn¡p¶Xv FSp¡m\mhnÃ. ]ckvt\lw XymKhpw kl\hpw Bhiys¸Spw. F¦nte AXv BßmÀYXbpÅXmIq.

kl\¯neqsSbmWv \mw ip²oIcn¡s¸Sp¶Xv. CutimbpsS kl\t¯mSp \½psS kl\w Iq«nt¨À¡pt¼mÄ AXv \½psS ]m]¯n\v ]cnlmcw IqSnbmbn¯ocpIbmWv. hmkvXh¯n Cutim Xsâ ]oUmkl\¯neqsS \½psS ]m]§Ä¡v ]cnlmcw km[n¡bmbncp¶tÃm. \½Ä AÀln¡p¶ in£ AhnSp¶v Gäphm§nsb¶v ]dbmw. A§s\bmWv k¦oÀ¯\§fpw kln¡p¶ ssZhZmksâ Nn{Xhpw \t½mSv kqNn¸n¡p¶Xv. ""At±lw \½psS ZuÀ_ey§Ä GsäSp¡pIbpw tcmK§Ä kwhln¡pIbpw sNbvXp'' F¶mWtÃm Gi¿m aninlmsb¡pdn¨v ]dªncn¡p¶Xv. \½psS ]m]¯nsâ `mcamWv AhnSp¶v Xsâ tXmfn hln¨Xv. B Ipcniv \½Ä Gäp hm§pt¼mÄ AXv aäpÅhcpsS c£bv¡pw \nZm\amhpIbmsW¶v ]dbmw.

{]XymitbmsS apt¶m«v t]mIm³

C¶s¯ Xeapdbv¡v thZ\bpw t¢i§fpw ]cmPb§fpw ZpklamWv. kl\¯nsâ amÀKw AhÀ¡v GXmWvSv A\yambn¯oÀ¶ncn¡p¶psh¶v ]dbmw. amXm]nXm¡³amcpsS Xncp¯epw imk\bpw, tkzOXbv¡v tNcm¯ \nÀtZi§Ä A[nImcnIÄ \ÂIp¶Xv, Nne Imcy§fnepWvSmIp¶ ]cmPb§Ä FÃmw Ahsc \ncmibnemgv¯pIbmWv.

C§s\ \ap¡v ap³t]m«v t]mIm³ km[n¡ptam? s]mXp\·bv¡v thWvSnbpw aäpÅhÀ¡v thWvSnbpw Fs´¦nepw sN¿m\mIptam? kl\¯neqsS t\Sp¶ a\¡cp¯v t]mbm F§s\ Hmtcm ImeL«¯nsebpw shÃphnfnIÄ t\cnSm\mhpw? ]cnanXnIfpsSbpw Xn·bpsS iànIfpsSbpw CSbn t¢i§fpw ]cmPb§fpw H¶pw CÃmXm¡m³ ]änÃ. kl\¯nsâ ]mX Hgnhm¡m\mhnÃ. C§s\sbmcp kmlNcy¯nemWv hn. AÂt^m³km½sb \ap¡v Hcp amXrIbm¡n k` DbÀ¯n¡m«p¶Xv. kt´mjt¯msS, {]XymitbmsS FÃm t¢i§tfbpw t\cnSm\pw kvt\l¯n hfcm\pw km[n¨ Cu hnip²bpsS ssNX\yw \s½bpw ASp¯ Xeapdtbbpw \bn¡m\nSbmIs«. AXn\mbn \ap¡v {]mÀYn¡mw.

Cu PohnXw Hcp tlma_en


1910 HmKÌv 19. As¶mcp shÅnbmgvNbmWv. Hcp km[mcWZnhkw. ]Xnhn¡hnªpÅ {]tXyIXsbm¶pw BÀ¡pw tXm¶nbnÃ. A¶v IpSamfqcn ap«¯p]mSw IpSpw_¯n amkw XnIbmsX Hcp s]¬Ipªv ]nd¶p. Ip«³ sshZysâbpw tacnbpsSbpw \memas¯ k´m\w. cWvSp tN¨namcpsS Ipª\pP¯n. aq¯ tPyjvT³ hfsc sNdp¸¯nse acn¨p t]mbn. ]pXnb AwKs¯ AhÀ A¶¡p«n F¶p hnfn¨p. Ipªp ]nd¶v F«mw Znhkw, 1910 HmKÌv 27þ\v kz´w CShIbmb IpSamfqÀ skâv tacokv tZhmeb¯n Úm\kv\m\w \ÂIn. Xm³ P·w \ÂInbXv `mhnbn ]Xn\mbnc§Ä hW§m³ t]mIp¶, kzÀKob ]qt´m¸nse hmSm¯ ]\n\oÀ¸qhmIm³ t]mIp¶, Hcp A]qÀh iniphmsW¶Xns\¡pdn¨v Hcp kqN\ t]mepw e`n¡msX, B P\\¯nsâ 29þmw Znhkw B amXmhv ssZhk¶n[nbnte¡v FSp¡s¸«p. IpSamfqÀ ]Ånbn arXtZlw kwkvIcn¨p.tacnbpsS kwkvImcw Ignªv Ipd¨pZnhk§Ä¡p tijw ktlmZcn ap«pNnd apcn¡³ ho«n A¶½ IpSamfqcnse¯n.Ipªns\ ap«pNndbnte¡p sImWvSpt]mbn. Gsd¡mew AhÄ¡v AhnsS Ignbm\mbnÃ. A{]Xo£nXambpWvSmb tcmKw A¶½sb InS¸nem¡n. CXdnª ]nXmhv ap«pNndbnse¯n Ipªp aIsf FSp¯v IpSamfqcnte¡v sImWvSpt]m¶p. ]ns¶ ]nXramXmhnsâ kwc£Wbnembn A¶¡p«n. ]nXramXmhv t{Xky½ Xmakn¨ncp¶ Geq¸d¼nse ho«nepw ]nXmhnsâ ]gq¸d¼nse ho«nepambn A¶¡p«n hfÀ¶p. {]mb¯nepw ]IzXbnepw hfÀ¶p h¶ A¶¡p«nsb Fgmw hbkn BÀ¸q¡c sXm®wIpgn Kh¬saâv FÂ.]n kvIqfn tNÀ¯p. F.C.A¶ F¶mbncp¶p kvIqfnse t]cv. CXn\nSbn {]Ya ZnhyImcpWy kzoIcW¯n\v hey½ A¶¡p«nsb Hcp¡ns¡mWvSncp¶p. 1917 \hw_À 27þ\v IpSamfqÀ ]Ånbnembncp¶p {]Ya ZnhyImcpWy kzoIcWw.

aq¶mw ¢mkphsc sXm®wIpgn kvIqfn ]Tn¨ A¶¡p«nsb XpSÀ hnZym`ymk¯n\v kuIcyanÃmXncp¶Xn\m hoWvSpw ap«pNndbnte¡v t]c½ sImWvSpt]mbn. ap«pNnd Kh¬saâv anUn kvIqfn tNÀ¶ AhÄ AhnsS Bdmw¢mkv hsc ]Tn¨p. C¡mebfhn aT¯n tNÀ¶v I\ymkv{XobmIWsa¶ A¶¡p«nbpsS B{Klw IqSpX Xo{hambn.

]´¡pkvXm Zn\¯nemWv k\ymk¯nte¡pÅ Xo£vWamb ssZhhnfnbn ap«¯p]mS¯v A¶¡p«n `cW§m\w ¢mcaT¯nse¯nbXv. aTw hI t_mÀUnwKn Xmakn¨v Ggmw ¢mkv (C¶s¯ ]¯mw ¢mkv) ]T\w XpSÀ¶p. {]kwK¯nepw Fgp¯nepw ss\]pWyapWvSmbncp¶ F.C. A¶ F¶ AÂt^m³km½ ¢mknse kmlnXy kamPw sk{I«dnbmbncp¶p.

1928 HmKÌv cWvSn\v aTw It¸fbn aq¶p I\yIamtcmsSm¸w AhÄ intcmhkv{Xw kzoIcn¨p. B Znhk¯nsâ hnip²\mb hnip² AÂt^m³kv entKmcnbpsS \mas¯ B{ibn¨v AÂt^m³k F¶ t]cv kzoIcn¨p. 1929 tabn aebmfw lbÀ ]co£bv¡p ]Tn¡m³ N§\mticn hmg¸Ån Fw.F¨v kvIqfnte¡v t]mbn.

1930 tabv 19þ\v `cW§m\w skâv tacokv s^mtdm\ ]Ånbn N§\mticn _nj]v amÀ Pbnwkv Imfmticnbn \n¶v intcmhkv{Xw kzoIcn¨p. aq¶mw ZnhkwXs¶ N§\mticnbnte¡v aS§n ]T\w XpSÀ¶p.

C¡me¯v ISp¯ cà{kmht¯msS AÂt^m³km½bpsS kl\]Àhw Bcw`n¨pIgnªncp¶p. tcmKw aqÀNvOn¨tXmsS FdWmIpfw P\d Bip]{Xnbn Hcp ikv{X{Inbbv¡v Cu bphk\ymkn\n hnt[bbmbn.

1932 tabn hmI¡mSv skâv t]mÄkv FÂ.]n kvIqfn A[ym]nIbmbn \nban¡s¸«p. tcmK§Ä Hmtcm¶mbn Iogvs¸Sp¯nbtXmsS A[ym]\w XpScm³ IgnbmsX B kvIqÄ hÀjmhkm\w `cW§m\t¯¡v aS§n. ]ntä hÀjw cà{kmhw hoWvSpw Ieiembn. tcmK]oUIfm aq¶pamkw Dd§m\mhmsX ktlmZcn heªp. `£Ww Aev]w am{Xw. Nne Znhk§fnÄ shÅw am{Xw IpSn¨p. OÀZnbpw cà{kmhhpw iàambtXmsS AÂt^m³km½ \nXytcmKnWnbmbn amdn. BtcmKyw £bn¨ncps¶¦nepw B apJs¯ ssNX\yhpw ss\Àaeyhpw Bscbpw BIÀjn¨ncp¶p.

1934þ ¢mck`¡mÀ¡pÅ \nbam\pkrXamb \hk\ymk]cnioe\w Bcw`n¡p¶Xn\pÅ Hcp¡§Ä \S¶phcnIbmbncp¶p. As¡mÃw s\mhntjyän\p t]mIm³ AÂt^m³km½ aTm[nImcnItfmSv At]£n¨p. s\mhntjyäv Imes¯ IÀ¡iamb \nba§Ä ]men¡m\pÅ BtcmKyw Csöv A[nImcnIÄ IWvSXn\m As¡mÃw s\mhntjyän\v tNcm\mbnÃ. F¶m 1935 HmKÌv 11þ\v hnip² ¢mcbpsS Xncp\mÄ Zn\¯nemcw`n¨ cWvSmas¯ _m¨n AÂt^m³km½ s\mhntjyäv Bcw`n¨p. N§\mticnbn Bcw`n¨ s\mhntjyän Kpcp\mY\mbn ^m. fqbnkv s]cpamenepw t\mhnkv ankv{Skmbn Ivfmc aTmwKamb aZÀ DÀiqebpw BWpWvSmbncp¶Xv. cà{kmhw DÄs¸sS \nch[nbmb tcmK§Ä AÂt^m³km½sb Iogvs¸Sp¯btXmsS Cu I\ymkv{Xnsb `cW§m\t¯¡v Xncn¨bbv¡m³ DÀiqem½ A¶s¯ N§\mticn _nj]v amÀ Pbnwkv ImfmticntbmSv A`n{]mbw tXSn. F¶m t\cn«pÅ kµÀi\¯n Cu I\yIbpsS BßobbpsS Bgw IWvSdnª ]nXmhv s\mhntjyäv ]qÀ¯nbm¡s« F¶v Xocpam\n¨p. Xo{hamb thZ\bnepw k\ymk¯nsâ AXnIÀ¡i \nba§Ä s\ÃnS hogvN hcp¯msX ]men¡p¶Xn AÂt^m³km½ {i²h¨p. {]mÀY\,£a, kl\w, ]cnXymKw XpS§nb ]pWy§sf PohnX\njvTbmbn amän.

1936 BKÌv 12þ\v s\mhntjyäv ]qÀ¯nbm¡n. cWvSp Znhk§Ä¡ptijw N§\mticnbnÂ\n¶v `cW§m\¯v Xncns¨¯n. Gsd sshImsX aq¶p amkw \oWvS ITn\amb ]\n AÂt^m³km½sb XfÀ¯n. 105 Un{Kn hsc ]\n¨ Znhk§fpWvSv. hnip² sIm¨pt{XkymbpsS am[yØw {]mÀYn¨v s\mth\ sNmÃpIbpw Adp]¯nb©mw Znhkw Cu hnip²bpsS ZÀi\¯m ]\n kuJyamhpIbpw sNbvXp. amk§Ä¡ptijw \yqtamWnbbpw ISp¯ s\©pthZ\bpw ]nSns]«p. AhKW\Ifpw Bt£]§fpw sXän²mcWIfpsams¡ IÀ¯mhns\{]Xn kln¨pw £an¨pw AÂt^m³km½ kzÀK¯n \nt£]§Ä hÀ[n¸n¨psImWvSncp¶p.

1940 HIvtSm_À 18þ\v cm{Xn A Ât^m³km½bpsS apdnbn Hcp tamjvSmhv IS¶pIbdn. `bhnlzebmb bphI\yIbv¡v t_m[w \ jvSs¸«p. kz´w ]nXmhns\t¸mepw Xncn¨dnbm\mhm¯ hn[w am\knIambn XIÀ¶p. amk§tfmfw HmÀa¡pdhpw am\knI kwLÀjhpw AÂt^m³km½sb Ae«n.

]n¶oSv OÀZnbpw ]mchiyhpw ]Xnhmbn. ]cphnsâ D]{Zh¯n DZchpw Imepw \ocph¨p hoÀ¯p. thZ\IÄ¡pw tcmK§Ä¡pw ia\apWvSmb Znhk§fn aäpÅhsc klmbn¨pw kvt\ln¨pw Ign¨pIq«n. Xp¶Â, Nn{XcN\, Ipj³ \nÀamWw XpS§nb tPmen sNbvXv a\kn\pw icoc¯n\pw Bizmkw t\Sn.

1945 Pqssebn AXyp{Kamb ]mchiyw _m[n¨p. Znhkw Adp]Xp XhWhsc OÀZn. OÀZn¡ptijw icocw aªpt]mse XWp¡pw. I®pIÄ¡v ImgvN Ipdªp. Ggp aWn¡qÀ hsc acWthZ\bv¡p Xpeyamb AhØbn AÂt^m³km½ I«nen ]pfª Znhk§fpWvSv.

I®pIÄ t]mepw Xpd¡m\mhmsX acWmk¶sbt¸mse Cu kl\]p{Xn ImWs¸«p. acp¶p Ign¨mÂt]mepw OÀZn¡p¶ AhØ. AXn\m hnip² IpÀ_m\ \mhn sImSp¡pI Akm[yambn. XncpthmkvXnsb¦nepw OÀZn IqSmsX kzoIcn¡m\pÅ A\p{Kl¯n\pthWvSn s\©pcpIn {]mÀYn¨tXmsS IpÀ_m\ kzoIcW¯n am{Xw OÀZn Ahsf D]{Zhn¨nÃ.

XocmtcmKnWnbmbncns¡ AÂt^m³km½ amÀ Pbnwkv Imfmticn ]nXmhns\ _m[n¨ ae¼\n {]m ÀY\bneqsS kzbw GsäSp¡pIbpw ]nXmhv tcmK tamNnX\mIpIbpw sNbvXp. hnhcw DÀiqem½bn \n¶v Adnª ]nXmhv IrXÚXm]qÀhw Hcp I¯pw dn_¬ NmÀ¯nb ]Shpw ktlmZcn¡v Ab¨p sImSp¯p. I¯pw ]Shpw `cW§m\w aT¯n C t¸mgpw kq£n¨n«pWvSv. amk§tfmfw AÂt^m³km½ ae¼\nbpambn IjvSs¸«p.

hoWvSpw OÀZnbpw ]mchiyhpw ktlmZcnsb XfÀ¯n. Znhkw \qdp XhWhsc OÀZn¡pI hgn icocw \pdp§n At_m[mhØbnte¡v XfÀ¶p hogp¶ AhØ. ]e cm{XnIfnepw P]§Ä F¯n¡m\mhm¯ hn[w XfÀ¨ icocs¯ Iogvs¸Sp¯n.

Hcn¡epw DWvSmIm¯ hn[w Akl\obamb ]ÃpthZ\bpw. ]n¶oSv thZ\IÄ IqSpX ItTmcambn. shÅw IpSn¡m³ ]äm¯hn[w hmbv ]gp¯p. FÃm thZ\Ifpw IÀ¯mhnsâ ]oUm\p`hs¯{]Xn kln¨p.

XobnÂs¸« IoS¯nsâ AhØbmWv X\ns¡¶v AÂt^m³km½ Hcn¡Â Cu thZ\sb¡pdn¨p ]dªp. F¶m IÀ¯mhv hnfn¡pw hsc kl\¯nsâ Cu Imk Xm³ kt´mjt¯msS IpSn¡psa¶pw Nn´bnÂt]mepw a\kns\ ]m] ]¦neam¡msX kq£n¡psa¶pw Cu I\yI I¯pIfn tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pWvSv. 1946 sâ XpS¡w apX acW¯nte¡v hnfn¡s¸Sm³ AÂt^m³km½ am\knIambn Hcp§n¡gnªncp¶p. B `mKys¸« Znhkw hcpsa¶v BßmÀYambn B{Kln¨v a\kns\ IÀ¯mhnte¡v Hcp¡n.

thZ\bpsS ]p{Xn kl\¯nsâ FcnXobnepw BtcmSpw ]cn`hn¡msX, Hmtcm \nanjhpw {]mÀY\bnepw ]cnXymK¯nepw Ignªp. acW¯nsâ aps¶mcp¡ambn Bßob]nXm¡³amÀ¡v FgpXnb I¯pIfpw `mjW§fpw B lrZbhnip²nbpsS Bgw hyàam¡p¶XmWv. 1946 Pqsse 28þ\v D¨tbmsS `mcXk`bpsS kl\]p{Xn Bß_en ]qÀ¯nbm¡n kzÀKob ]dpZokbnte¡p bm{Xbmbn.


AÂt^m³km½bpsS kwkvImcthfbnÂ

^m.tdmapfqkv kn.Fw.sF. sNbvX {]kwKw

Adp]¯ncWvSp hÀjw ap¼v Xosc sNdnb Hcp BÄ¡p«¯n\p ap¶n hoW Cu hm¡pIÄ Hcp {]hmNIsâ hm¡pIfmbn amdnbncn¡p¶p

""Hcp bphI\yIbpsS ihkwkvImc¯n\mbn«mWp \mw ChnsS IqSnbncn¡p¶Xv. [\nIbmb Hcp IpSpw_n\n, _ncpZ[mcnWn, Ihb{Xn, IYmImcn, kn\namXmcw F¶o \neIfn temI¯n\p al¯mb tkh\§Ä A\pjvTn¡pIbpw temI{]kn²n t\SpIbpw sN¿m³ IgnhpWvSmbncp¶ Cu bphXocXv\w AhfpsS PohnXImew apgph³ I\yImeb¯nsâ aXnÂs¡«pIÄ¡pÅn temI¯n\p al¯cw F¶p IcpXphm³ km[n¡p¶ bmsXm¶pw sN¿m\mhmsX tcmKi¿bn Ign¨p PohnXw ]mgm¡n acWaSªncn¡p¶Xmbn tXm¶p¶p. _lpP\ZrjvSnbn C{]Imcw \njv{]tbmP\ambn PohnXw Ahkm\n¸n¨p F¶Xn\p sXfnhÃtbm Rm³ ChnsS ImWp¶ XpNvOamb Cu BÄ¡q«w.

F¶m Cu I\yIsb Gäw ASp¯dnªn«pÅ Np cp¡w BfpIfn HcmÄ F¶\nebn Rm³ ]dbp¶p, Fsâ lrZb¯nsâ AXyKm[amb hnizmk¯n \n¶p Rm³ ]dbp¶p, tIcf¯n F¶Ã, `mcX¯n¯s¶ Cu cWvSmbncw hÀj§Ä¡nSbn DWvSmbn«pÅ DÂIrjvShyànIfn ssZhka£w hfsc amlmßyw t\Snb Hcp ]pWyI\yIbpsS ihkwkvImc¯n BWv \mw ]¦psImÅp¶Xv.

AhfpsS B´cnI al¯zw icn¡p {Kln¨ncp¶psh¦n tIcfw ZÀin¨n«pÅXnte¡pw h ¼n¨ hnizmknIfpsS Hcp Iq«w am{XaÃ, _lpiXw sshZnIcpw, `mcX¯nse sa{Xm³amÀ Xs¶bpw ChnsS k¶nlnXcmIpambncp¶p. Cu I\yIbpsS ]qPyicocs¯ Hcp t\m¡p ImWp¶Xn\v, ChÄ D]tbmKn¨ncp¶ GsX¦nepw sXmSphn¨p ]qPykm[\§fmbn XeapdIÄhscbpw kq£n¡p¶Xn\v P\kaqlw AlalanIbm Xn§n¡qSpambncp¶p.

enkyp aT`n¯n¡pÅn Pohn¨ hnip² sIm¨pt{Xkym AhfpsS PohnXIme¯v F{X IWvSv AÚmXbmbncp¶p! AhfpsS ihkwkvImcw F{XIWvSv A\mUw_cambncp¶p! F¶m C¶v AhÄ temI{]kn²bmbn¯oÀ¶ncn¡btÃ? AhfpsS a[pckvacW Xs¶ F{XtImSn P\§sf C¶pw B\µw sImWvSp ]pfIw sImÅn¡p¶p.

\mw Ct¸mÄ `qZm\w sN¿phm³ t]mIp¶ Cu bphI\yIbpambn ASp¯p ]cnNbs¸«n«pÅ Hcph³ F¶ \nebn am\pjnIambn F\n¡v a\knem¡m³ km[n¨n«pÅ hn[w Rm³ ]dbp¶p, hnip² sIm¨pt{Xkymsb¡mÄ A{X ]n¶neÃmbncn¡pw PohnX hnip²nsImWvSv Cu bphI\yI F¶v. kz`mhmXoXhpw ssZhnIhpamb hnjb§Ä hnhcn¡p¶Xn\v `uXnIhpw am\pjnIhpamb `mjbpw ssienbpw XnI¨pw A]cym]vXat{X. X·qew Cu ]pWyI\yIbpsS Po hnX amlmßyhpw B[ymßnI kn²nIfpw AhfnepÅ {]kmZhc¯nsâ {]hÀ¯\§fpw icn¡pw hniZoIcn¨p ImWn¡m³ Hcp kzÀK`m jbpw Hcp kzÀKZqX\pw Bhiyw Xs¶.

""BIbm Cu ]pWyNcnXbpsS tZlhntbmK¯n Bcpw ZpxJnt¡WvS, Bcpw IctbWvS. Cu I\yItbmSv ASp¯p ]cnNbs¸Sm\nSbmbXp Xs¶ Fsâ PohnX¯nse Gähpw henb `mKyambn Rm³ IcpXp¶p. Rm³ Cu ]pWymßmhns\ Gäw aXn¡pIbpw kvt\ln¡pIbpw sNbvXncp¶p. F ¶m AhfpsS thÀ]mSn Aev]am{Xamb ZpxJwt]mepw F\n¡p tXm¶p¶nÃ. adn¨v, Fsâ lrZbw AhmNyamb B\µhnImc§fm Xn§nhn§pIbmWv. CXv acWt¯msS AhfpsS XpSÀ¨bmb ZpcnX§Ä Ahkm\n¨tÃm F¶pÅ Nn´ sImWvSÃ; {]XypX, \t½mtSäw ASp¯ Hcp a[yØsb kzÀK¯n \ap¡p e`n¨ncn¡p¶p F¶XpsImWvSmWv.

BIbm ]tcXbpsS hÕe ]nXmth, ZpxJnt¡WvS. Cu ]pWymßmhnsâ ]nXrXzw e`n¨Xn B\µn¡pI. Hcp ]pWyI\yIbpsS ktlmZcnbmIm³ `mKyw e`n¨htf; IctbWvS kt´mjn¡pI. I\yImeb ktlmZcnItf, I®p\oÀ sNmcntbWvS. Cu hocI\yItbmSp IqsS hkn¡p¶Xn\pw Chsf ]cnNcn¡p¶Xn\pw `mKyw e`n¨Xn BËmZn¡pI. ChÄ hkn¨ I\yImaTw `mKys¸«Xv. ChfpsS ]qPyicocw AS¡w sN¿s¸Sp¶ Cu `cW§m\w {Kmaw `mKys¸«Xv.

ssZhw Xncpa\kmIps¶¦n `cW§m\w `mcX¯nsâ enkyqhmbn¸cnWan¡pw. tIcf¯nsâsb¶Ã, `mcX¯nsâ \m\m`mK§fn \n¶pw XoÀYmSIÀ ChfpsS \nÀae icocw DÄs¡mÅp¶ IpgnamSw kµÀin¡pw. `mcX¯nse sa{Xm·msc¶Ã ssZhw Xncpa\kmIp¶ ]£w IÀ±n\mf³amÀ Xs¶ C¶v AÚmXbmb Cu I\yIbpsS IpgnamSw kµÀin¨p {]mÀYn¡pw.

C§s\bmsW¦n Aßim´n¡mbpÅ Cu ZnhyIÀa§fpsS AÀYsa´v F¶v \n§Ä tNmZnt¨¡mw. hyàn]cambn Cu Ahkc¯n F\n¡p tXm¶p¶Xv Cu I\yImcXv\¯nsâ Bßim´n¡mbn {]mÀYn¡m\Ã, adn¨v, kzÀKØnXbmb AhfpsS am[yØyw At]£n¡m\mWv.

F¶m A{]amZbmb Xncpk`bpsS \bw AXÃ... Cu ktlmZcnbn Fs´¦nepw Aev]am{Xamb A]qÀWXtbm eLp\yq\Xtbm DWvSmbncps¶¦nÂþ a\pjy³ Chsb \ntijw hns«mgnªp Pohn¡pI km[yaÃtÃmþ Ahbv¡p ]cnlmcw e`n¡p¶Xn\mbn Cu IÀa¯n\nSbv¡pw \ap¡p {]mÀYn¡mw.""


thZ\bpsS hocKmY

tPm¬ BâWn

ap¶nse BdSnam{Xw Zqc¯nte¡pt\m¡n \S¡pI, B\µIcamb ImgvNIfnÂ\ns¶Ãmw I®pIÄ ]n³hen¡pI F¶hn[¯n I®pIsfbpw, \à hm¡pIsf¡mf[nIambn Ipäs¸Sp¯epIÄ¡p sNhnsImSp¡pI F¶ hn[¯n ImXpIsfbpw, cpNntXm¶p¶ t`mPy§sfÃmw hÀPn¡pI F¶ Xc¯n \mhns\bpw _Ôn¨ HcmÄ ¡p icoc¯n kpJm\p`h§Ä H¶panÃmXncn¡pI F¶Xn\¸pdw thZ\IÄIqSn klnt¡WvSnh¶mtem? AXpw XocmthZ\IÄ. AÂt^m³km½bpsS icocw thZ\bpsS Irjn`qanbmbncp¶p. ssZhw sImSp¯ thZ\IÄ IrjnsNbvXv, hnfshSp¡m³ AhÀ B bPam\s\ Im¯ncp¶p. ap¸¯mdp hÀjw \oWvS B Im¯ncn¸mbncp¶p AÂt^m³km½bpsS PohnXw.

Hcp a\pjy\p ZpcnX§Ä A\p`hs¸Smhp¶Xv imcocnIambpw am\knIambpw BßobambpamWv. Cu aq¶p hn[¯nepw ITn\ ZpcnX§Ä A\p`hn¨psImWvSpÅ AÂt^m³km½bpsS PohnXw Ahsc Pohn¨ncn¡pt¼mÄ ¯s¶ Hcp CXnlmkam¡m³ t]m¶Xmbncp¶p. F¶m AhcpsS acWw Adnbn¨psImWvSv 1946 Pqsse 28þ\p `cW§m\w ]Ånbn aWnapg§p¶Xn\p ap¼v Ahsc hmgv¯p¶tXm, thWvS, AhÀ Akm[mcWbmbn Pohn¡p¶psh¶p ]ckys¸Sp¯p¶tXm Bbn Hcp hm¡pt]mepw F§pw apg§nbnÃ. Hcp I\yImeb¯nsâ hf¸n\p ]pd ¯p IS¶n«nÃm¯ t]cmbncp¶p knÌÀ AÂt^m³k F¶Xv.

AhÄ sIm¨p¶mÄ apXevt¡ Akm[mcWbmbncp¶p. sIm¨p¶mfnte ZpcnX§fpsS sImt¯äpsh¶Xneà Akm[mcWXzw; AhtbmSv F§s\ {]XnIcn¨psh¶XnemWv. Xs¶ XÅnhogv¯n ImÂap«ps]m«n¨ kl]mTnsb A[ym]Isâ in£bnÂ\n¶p c£n¡pIsb¶Xv Hcp sIm¨pIp«nbpsS {]hr¯nbÃ. a\ximkv{X¯n ]dbp¶ "CUv' F¶ L«¯nÂ\n¶p {]mb¯n\p hfsc apt¶ "CutKm'bnte¡pw "kq¸À CutKm'bnte¡pw IS¶ s]¬Ip«nbmbn A¶¡p«nsb ImWmw. ]Xn½q¶mw hbkv F¶Xv Bcpw kz´ambn Xocpam\§sfSp¡p¶ {]mbaÃ. ho«pImcpw aäpÅhcpw hnhml¯n\p iàambn \nÀ_Ôn¨t¸mÄ AXns\Xntc B {]mb¯n Dd¨ Xocpam\saSp¯ s]¬Ip«nbmWv A¶¡p«n.

B hyànXz¯nsâ iàn F{Xb[nIambncp¶psh¶p \s½ AZv`pXs¸Sp¯p¶p, kz´w Xocpam\w \S¸m¡m³ AhÄ kzoIcn¨ kmlknI \S]Sn.

ImepIÄ Xobn s]mÅn¡pI F¶Xv km[mcWKXnbn AhnthIamWv. F¶m thZ\mIcamb B kmlk¯nsâ ]cnWXnIsf A¶¡p«n F¶ Ip«n t\cn« coXn AhÄ AhnthIn Bbncp¶nsöp sXfnbn¡p¶p. thZ\ AhÄ [ocambn kln¨p. am{XaÃ, ImepIÄ s]mÅnbXÃ, Xm³ s]mÅn¨XmWv F¶ s]mÅp¶ kXyhpw AXnsâ DZm¯amb Dt±iyhpw PohnXImew apgph³ aäpÅhcn \n¶p ad¨phbv¡pIbpw sNbvXp. B kmlks¯¡pdn¨pÅ {]Jym]\w sImWvSÃ, AXp icoc¯nepWvSm¡nb sshIrXw sImWvSmWv AhÄ hnhmls¯ XSbm³ {ian¨Xv.

ssZhkvt\ls¯{]Xn AÂt^m³km½ Gäphm§nb thZ\IfpsS \mµnbmbncp¶p ImepIfnse B s]mÅÂ. ssZh¯n\p kzbw kaÀ¸n¡p¶Xnsâ Hu]NmcnIamb ASbmfambncp¶p AhÄ¡p I\ymeb {]thiw. t{]an¡p¶hs\ hnhmlw sN¿p¶Xpt]mse. AXn\ptijw tcmKw ]nSns]«t¸mÄ ZpcnX§sf ssZh¯nsâ XtemSepIfmbn DÄs¡mÅm³ XpS§n. ]n¶oSp ZpcnX§fpsS ImÂhcn bm{XIfmbncp¶p. AhÄ ssZht¯mSp thZ\IÄ tNmZn¨phm§m³ XpS§n. Hcp A¼XpIntem{Kmw icoc¯n thZ\bpsS Hcp kly]ÀhXs¯ hln¡pIbmWv B Bbpkp sNbvXXv.

AÂt^m³k thZ\bv¡mbn tNmZn¡pt¼mÄ ssZhw AXp sImSp¡pIbpw kl\w sImSp¼ncns¡mWvSv Poh³ s]m«psa¶mIpt¼mÄ AÂt^m³kbpsS At]£{]Imcw ssZhw thZ\ ]n³hen¡pIbpw sN¿p¶ Xo{hamb Hcp ]mckv]cy¯nsâ AhØbnse¯nbncp¶p Ccphcpw X½nepÅ _Ôsa¶mWp a\knemt¡WvSXv. AÂt^m³km½bv¡mbn ssZhw tcmK§sf {]tXyIw krjvSn¨p \evIpIbmbncpt¶m F¶p t]mepw kwibapWvSv. AÂt^m³km½bpsS tcmK§Ä At¶m ]n¶otSm IrXyambn UbKvt\mkv sNbvXn«pÅXmbn AdnhnÃ. cà{kmhw, U_nÄ \yptamWnb, £bw, ae¼\n, ImepIÄ tNÀ ¯phbv¡m³ Ignbm¯ hn[¯n {hWw, ]mchiyw, OÀZn, DSense Xz¡nsâ Np¡n¨pfnbÂ, Dd¡anÃmbva F¶n§s\ tcmK§fpsS Hcp ep¯n\nb Xs¶bmWp ]dªptIÄ¡p¶Xv. (aWn¡qdpIÄ \ofp¶ ]mchiyw Ignªm ITn\amb hni¸pw Zmlhpw. Fs´¦nepw Ign¨m OÀZn. OÀZn XpS§nbm A¼Xpw Adp]Xpw XhW.)

CXn\p ]pdta am\knIamb ]oUIÄ. C{Xtbsd imcocnI thZ\IÄ kln¡p¶ Hcmsf¡pdn¨p I\yImaT¯n\pÅn GjWnIfpw sXän²mcWIfpw ]c¡pI F¶Xp kzm`mhnIaÃ. Hcp]t£ ssZhw AÂt^m³km½bpsS B{Kl{]Imcw, AhfpsS ]m\]m{X¯nse Ibv]v B hn[¯n¡qSn hÀ[n¸n¨psImSp¯Xmhmw. AsænÂ, A¶v AÂt^m³km½ {]m]n¨ncp¶ ]pWymhkY km[mcW¡mÀ¡p a\knem¡m\mhm¯hn[w DZm¯ambncp¶ncn¡Ww.

Bßob ]oUIÄ FÃm hnip²cpw A\p`hn¨n«pWvSmhWw. \mY\n F¯nt¨c¯¡ ]pWyw X\n¡ptWvSm F¶ kwibw AÂt^m³km½sb Ae«nbncp¶p. ]pWy{]m]vXnsb¶Xv Hcp CfhnÃm¯ e£yhpw \nc´c[ym\hpambn¡gnªncp¶Xn\m PohnXw Ahkm\n¡mdmsb¶t_m[w XpS§nbt¸mÄ apXÂ, X\n¡Xp km[y tam F¶ Nn´ XoÀ¨bmbpw AÂt^m³km½sb ITn\ambn aYn¨ncn¡Ww. thZ\IfpsSbpw hyYIfpsSbpw thfIÄt]mepw {]mÀY\IÄsImWvSpw {]mbÝn¯§ÄsImWvSpw ]tcm]Imc§fmepw AhÄ \nd¨p. Rm³ F¶ `mhs¯ \nc´cw Nhn«nbc¨psImWvSncp¶p.

kvt\lw thZ\bv¡p ia\uj[amIpsa¶Xn\m A ¯c¯nepÅ kvt\lwt]mepw a\knÂ\n¶v Dc¨pIfbpIbpw A{Xbpw kvt\lwIqSn ssZh¯n\p \ÂIpIbpw sN¿m³ AhÄ apXnÀ¶p. cà{kmh¯nsâbpw aäpw Ime¯v Hcmizmkw Xsâ B[ymßnI Kpcp\mYbpambn kwkmcn¡pI F¶Xmbncp¶p. F¶m B B izmkw thsWvS¶phbv¡m³, Kpcp\mYbpambpÅ kwkmcw BgvNbnsemcn¡em¡n. F¶m BgvNbnsemcn¡Â kwkmcn¡m³ kao]n¡pt¼mÄ Kpcp\mY ""Ct¸mÄ kabanÃ'' F¶p ]dªv AÂt^m³ksb Xncn¨bbv¡m³ XpS§n. A§s\ DÅnse thZ\IÄ IgnhXpw DÅn¯s¶ Xn¡ns¡mÅn¡pI F¶Xv AÂt^m³km½bpsS kz`mhambn.

thZ\n¡m\pÅ FÃm Ahkc§fpw Xsâ Zmkn¡v AhfpsS CjvSa\pkcn¨v Hcp¡ns¡mSp¡pIbmbncp¶ntà ssZhw? AhfpsS kl\¯nsâ Irjn`qanbn thZ\bpsS hn¯pIfn \n¶p hnip²nbpsS hnfhpWvSmbn. B hnfsIm¿m³ bPam\³ F¯p¶Xp Im¯ncp¶ Ahsf ssZhw \ncmibm¡nbnÃ. hnfshSp¯ bPam\\p ]qÀWkwXr]vXnsb¶v C¶p \mw Adnbp¶p.

`mcX¯nsâ hnip² XmcIw

skÀPn BâWn

temIsa¼mSpapÅ \qdptImSnbntesd hcp¶ It¯men¡mk`m hnizmknIfpsS kaql¯nÂs]Sp¶ tIcf¯nse ss{IkvXhÀ¡v cWvSmbncw hÀjs¯ ]mc¼cyamWv AhImis¸Sm\pÅXv. {InkvXpinjy\mb skâv tXmakv `mcX¯nse¯n sImfp¯nb hnizmkZo]¯n \n¶mWv CXmZyambn Hcp hnip²sb `mcX¯n\p e`n¨Xv. It¯men¡mk`bpsS AwK_ehpw BtKmf{]kànbpwsImWvSp am{Xaà Cu aplqÀ¯¯n\v C{Xtbsd {]m[m\yw e`n¨Xv. ssZh\ntbmK§fpsS AÛpXIcamb Nne CSs]SepIfpw CXn sXfnªpImWmw.

IpSamfqÀ F¶ {Kma¯n XoÀ¯pw km[mcW¡mcpsS Hcp IpSpw_¯n ]nd¶ A¶¡p«n F¶ s]¬Ip«n It¯men¡mk`bpsS BtKmfhW¡¯n\mbpw temImcm[ybmbpw amdnb kmlNcyw B[ymßnIXbnepw a\pjy\·bnepw hnizkn¡p¶ GhÀ¡pw \nÀhrXn ]Icp¶XmWv. tIhew ap¸¯nbmdp hÀjw CltemI PohnXw. AXn ]Xn\mdp hÀjw k\ymkn\n. AXnsemcp hÀjw A[ym]nIbmbn tkh\w. Hcp I\yImaT¯n\ ]pd¯v Adnbs¸Sphm³ X¡hn[w kw`h§sfm¶panÃm¯ PohnXw. kmaqlnItam kmlnXy]ctam IemkmwkvImcnI taJeIÄ¡pÅtXm hnZym`ymk taJebnepÅtXm Bb ]db¯¡ Hcp kw`mh\bpw sNbvXn«nÃm¯ PohnXw. Bßob taJebnepÅhÀ¡nSbn t]mepw kwkmchnjbambn«nÃm¯ Hcp PohnXw. F¶m \nkoaamb ssZhkvt\lhpw klPohnkvt\lhpw B PohnXs¯ hyXykvXam¡n.

tcmK]oUIÄ \ndªXmbncp¶p B PohnXw. ITn\thZ\Isf AÂt^m³km½ F§s\ kzoIcn¨p, AhtbmSv F§s\ {]XnIcn¨psh¶Xv B PohnXs¯ hyXykvXam¡p¶p. D]m[nIfnÃmsX ssZhkvt\l¯n\mbn kzbw kaÀ¸n¡pI F¶ efnXamb IÀaambncp¶p B PohnXw. tcmK¡nS¡bn Ccn¡m³t]mepamhm¯t¸mÄ AhÄ {]mÀY\bpsS Icw ]nSn¨v ssZhk¶n[nbnse¯n. thZ\bnepw AhÄ NpäpapÅhÀ¡p kvt\l¯nsâ AarXkv]ÀitaIn.

kl\¯nsâ al\ob amXrI F¶mWv hnip²bmbpÅ {]Jym]\thfbn AÂt^m³km½sb¸än _\UnIvSv ]Xn\mdma³ amÀ]m¸ ]dªXv. B PohnXw aäpÅhÀs¡mcp henb ]mTwIqSn \ÂIp¶pWvSv. {]XnkÔnIsf t\cnSm\pÅ Icp¯nsâ, BßiànbpsS ]mTw. temIw C¶p t\cnSp¶ ]e {]XnkÔnIfnepw XymKhpw kl\hpw Hcp ]mgvhm¡mbmWv IcpXs¸Sp¶Xv. `uXnIXbpsS AXn{]kc¯n thZ\ kln¡mt\m {]XnkÔnIsf AXnPohn¡mt\m DÅ Icp¯v a\pjy\v tNmÀ¶pt]mbncn¡p¶p. hÀ[n¨phcp¶ BßlXyIfpw IpSpw_¯IÀ¨Ifpw Hs¡ Cu kmlNcy¯n \n¶pfhmIp¶XmWv. \nc]cm[nIfmb a\pjysc t_mw_p kv^mS\§fneqsS sImes¸Sp¯p¶Xpw t\«§Ä¡pthWvSn A[Àa§Ä sN¿p¶Xpw kaql¯nsâ Gähpw henb tcmKambn amdnbncn¡p¶p. C¯cw kmlNcy§fnemWv AÂt^m³km½sbt¸mepÅ hnip²PohnX§fpsS {]kànbpw AhÀ \ap¡p \ÂIp¶ amXrIbpw hne¸nSn¸pÅXmIp¶Xv.

`mcXob ]Ým¯e¯n AÂt^m³km½bpsS hnip²]Zhn¡v {]tXyI {]m[m\yapWvSv. `mcX¯nse kv{XoIÄ Gsd ]mÀizhXvIcn¡s¸«hcmWv. s]¬Ipªp§sf {`qWmhØbn \in¸n¡p¶Xv \½psS kaql¯n C¶pw Häs¸« kw`h§fÃ. kv{XoimàoIcW¯n\mbn Gsd Imcy§Ä sN¿p¶psWvS¦nepw {Kma§fn am{XaÃ, \Kc]cnjvImc§fpsS \Sphn t]mepw kv{Xo C¶v ]oUn¸n¡s¸Sp¶p, AhKWn¡s¸Sp¶p, ]cnlkn¡s¸Sp¶p. IpSpw_¯nsâ \pIw tXmfn t]dp¶ A½amÀ Hgp¡p¶ I®ocv C¶pw \½psS AI¯f§fnepw sXmgnenS§fnepsams¡ HgpIp¶pWvSv. C¯csamcp Ime¯v `mcX¯n\p e`n¨ ]pWyamWv AÂt^m³km½bpsS hnip²]Zhn.

kl\¯nsâ _enthZnbn hnhn[ PohnX kmlNcy§fneqsS IS¶pt]mIp¶ `mcX kv{XoXz¯nsâ A`nam\hpw {]Xymibpambn amdnbncn¡p¶p AÂt^m³km½. P·\mSmb IpSamfqcnepw I_dS§nbncn¡p¶ `cW§m\¯pw \m\mPmXn aXØcmb ]Xn\mbnc§Ä {]XnZn\w Bizmkw tXSn F¯p¶Xpw AÛpXIcamb At\Iw A\p`hkm£y§fpsS shfn¨¯nemWv.]ZhnIfpsS, k¼¯nsâ, kzm[o\¯nsâ Hs¡ ASnØm\¯n AwKoImcw \ÂIp¶ temI¯nsâ kao]\§tfmSv kÀthizc³ Hcp hntbmP\¡pdns¸gpXnbncn¡bmWv AÂt^m³km½bv¡p \ÂInb Cu Akpe` A\p{Kl¯neqsS.

Xn·bpsSbpw A\oXnbpsSbpw ta hnPbw t\Snb \nch[n almßm¡fpsS \mSmWv `mcXw. BßobXbv¡v `mcXw F¶pw D¶X Øm\w \ÂInbn«pWvSv. Bßob k¼¯v FÃm `uXnI k¼¯n\ptaepw hnPbw t\Sp¶ A\p`hw IqSnbmWv AÂt^m³km½bpsS hnip²]Zhn.

\nkmc Imcy§ÄsImWvSmWv ]cn]qÀWX ssIhcn¡p¶sX¶v A\izc IemImc\mb ssa¡nÄ B©tem Xsâ injytcmSv ]dbmdpWvSmbncp¶p. F¶m ]cn]qÀWXsb¶Xv \nkmcamsbmcp Imcyasöpw AXv Gsd t{ijvThpw ssIhcn¡m³ Gsd t¢iIcambXpamsW¶pw At±lw injysc HmÀan¸n¨ncp¶p. Hcp IemImcsâ krjvSnbn \nkmc Imcy§Ä¡pt]mepw Gsd {]m[m\yapsWvS¶v hyàam¡pIbmbncp¶p ssa¡nÄ B©tem. AXpt]mseXs¶ \nkmccmb a\pjyÀ¡v AhcpsS IÀakm£mXvImc¯neqsS ]qÀWXbnse¯m³ km[n¡psa¶v AÂt^m³km½bpsS PohnXw \s½ ]Tn¸n¡p¶p.

It¯men¡m k`bn Hcp hyànsb hnip²t\m hnip²tbm Bbn {]Jym]n¡p¶Xv \nch[n ]T\§Ä¡pw KthjW§Ä¡pw tijamWv. ssZhZmkn, [\y, hmgv¯s¸«hÄ F¶o L«§Ä¡p tijamWv AÂt^m³km½sb hnip²bmbn {]Jym]n¨Xv. Hmtcm L«¯nepw \nch[n \S]Sn{Ia§fneqsS IS¶pt]mtIWvSXmbn«pWvSv. AÂt^m³km½bpsS kpIrX§Ä, k·mÀKPohnXw, A½ hgnbmbn e`n¨ AÛpX tcmKkuJy§Ä F¶nhsb¡pdns¨Ãmw hniZamb ]T\w \S¯nbn«pWvSv. hÀj§Ä \oWvSp\n¶ Cu A]{KY\§Ä¡nSbn Xbmdm¡nb tcJIfpw dnt¸mÀ«pIfpw ap¸Xn\mbnc¯ntesd t]Pv hcpw. \nch[nt]cpsS km£nsamgnIfpw tcJs¸Sp¯nbn«pWvSv. AÛpXIcamb tcmKim´nsb¡pdn¨v hnZKv² tUmIvSÀamcS§p¶ kwL¯nsâ dnt¸mÀ«pw e`n¨ncp¶p. 1910 HmKÌv 19 \p P\n¨v 1936 HmKÌv 12\p \nXy{hXhmKvZm\w \S¯n I\ymkv{Xobmbn 1946 Pqsse 28 \v CltemIhmkw shSnª knÌÀ AÂt^m³km F¶ km[mcW h\nX C¶v It¯men¡m k`bpsS BtKmfhW¡¯n\v ]m{Xo`qXbmbncn¡p¶p. XymKkpc`nehpw kl\¯nsâ apÅpIÄ \ndªXpamb ]mXbneqsS ssZhkvt\l¯nsâ ]ShpIÄ Ibdnb Cu ]pWyhXn temI¯n\p \ÂInb al\ob amXrI `mcX¯nse ss{IkvXhk`bv¡v A`nam\w ]Icpt¼mÄ AXv thZ\bneqsSbpw {]XnkÔnIfneqsSbpw IS¶pt]mIp¶ `mcX kv{XoXz¯n\v e`n¡p¶ BizmkZqXpw AÛpXhcZm\hpw IqSnbmWv.


`cW§m\s¯ a®v

tXmakv amXyp sIm«mc¯pwIpgn


AÂt^m³km½sb hnip²bmbn {]Jym]n¨tXmsS BtKmf XoÀYmS\ tI{µ¯nsâ ]Zhn e`n¨ `cW§m\w Ncn{Xapd§p¶ a®mWv. "alm`mcX"t¯mfw hcpw AXnsâ ]mc¼cyhpw ]gabpw.

]mWvUh·mcpsS h\hmk¡me¯v, Zzm]cbpK¯nsâ GXmWvSv A´yL«¯nÂ, A¿mbncw hÀj§Ä¡p ap¼v AhÀ `cW§m\¯p Ign¨pIq«nsb¶pw `oatk\³ D¯c{]tZin Atbm[ybnse kcbq \Znbn \n¶p sImWvSph¶ ARvP\¡ÃnepÅ {ioIrjvW {]Xna Cu Im\\ (h\) {]tZi¯p {]XnjvTn¨v ]mcW (D]hmk kam]\w) \S¯nsb¶pw A§s\ "]mcW¦m\w' F¶ \maapWvSmbn F¶pw Imem´c¯n AXp "`cW§m\"ambn¯oÀ¶psh¶pamWv Hcp sFXnlyw.

{InÌ^À sImfw_kv Atacn¡ IWvSp]nSn¡p¶Xn\v A©p \qämWvSp ap¼v `cW§m\w ]Ån Øm]n¡s¸«ncp¶pXmbpw tcJIfpWvSv. hnip² tXm½mÇolm {InkvXp ktµiw {]Ncn¸n¨v `cW§m\w hgn k©cn¨n«psWvS¶p hnizkn¡p¶hcpWvSv. {io\mcmbW Kpcp`cW§m\¯n\Sp¯pÅXpw 1910 Øm]n¡s¸«Xpamb CS¸mSn B\µj¬apJ t£{X¯n 1927 th (iqew) {]XnjvT \S¯nsb¶pw ]dbs¸Sp¶p. hmgv¯s¸« Nmhd Ipcym¡mkv Genbmk¨³ At±l¯nsâ BßIYbn `cW§m\s¯¸än ]dbp¶pWvSv. `cW§m\¯n\v sXm«Sp¯v ¹mi\men 1858  At±lw Øm]n¨ IÀaeo¯m B{iaw 1860 \ne¨pt]mIm\nSbmbn. hmgv¯s¸« aZÀ sXtckbpw `cW§m\w kµÀin¨n«pWvSv.

]qªmdn \n¶p 1947 e`n¨ \otdm N{IhÀ¯nbmbncp¶ t¢mUnbmknsâ Imes¯ (F.Un 4154) kzÀW\mWbhpw ]qªmdn \n¶pXs¶ IWvSpIn«nb kokdnsâ Imes¯ kzÀWþ shÅn \mWb§fpw CSadpIn \n¶v 1984 e`n¨ 2000 sImÃw ]g¡apÅ tdma³ \mWb§fpw ss]I CShImXnÀ¯n¡pÅn \n¶p e`n¨ {io_p²sâ Imes¯ (_n.kn 563483) 162 shÅn \mWb§fpw `cW§m\w DÄs¸Sp¶ ao\¨n {]tZi§fpsS ]pcmX\ hmWnPy _Ô¯n\p \à sXfnhmWv.

`cW§m\¯n\v ASp¯pÅ A¼md imkv{Xm t£{Xhpw CSaäw ]p¯³ i_cnae imkvXm t£{Xhpw CSaä¯v s]ms¶mgpIpw tXmSnsâ Xoc¯pWvSmbncp¶ imkvXm t£{Xhpw ]gb _u²hnlmc§fmbncp¶psh¶v A`n{]mbs¸Sp¶hcpWvSv. ISp¯pcp¯nþ]memþ`cW§m\wþCucmäpt]«þKqUÃqÀ ae¼mX (tIm«hgn) {]ikvXambncp¶p. 12mw \qämWvSn sN¼Iticn, sX¡pwIqÀ, hS¡pwIqÀ cmPm¡³amÀ tNÀ¶mWv Cu ae¼mX \nÀan¨sX¶p ]dbs¸Sp¶p. `cW§m\w AÂt^m³km ]ÅnbpsS ]pdIphi¯v C¶p ImWp¶ sNdnb tdmUnsâ Øm\¯pIqSnbmbncp¶p tIm«hgn t]mbncp¶Xv. `cW§m\w ]ÅnbpsS ap³hi¯pIqSnbpÅ Gäpam\qÀþ]memþ]qªmÀ tdmUv sh«n¯pd¶Xv 1871emWv.

F.Un \memw \qämWvSpapX sImSp§ÃqÀ, ]mebqÀ (XriqÀ), hS¡³ ]dhqÀ, ISp¯pcp¯n, Ipdhne§mSv, \nebv¡Â, Acphn¯pd, A¦amen XpS§nb Øe§fn \n¶p `cW§m\t¯¡v ss{IkvXh IpSntbäw \S¶n«pWvSv. 14, 17, 18, 19mw \qämWvSpIfnemWv IqSpX IpSntbäapWvSmbXv. ae¦ck`m Ncn{X ]nXmhmb ^m. _ÀWmÀZnsâ "amÀt¯m½m {InkvXym\nIÄ' F¶ Ncn{X {KÙ¯n ImWp¶ tIcf¯nse 24 BZy tZhmeb§fn H¶p `cW§m\amWv. Ing¡³ {]tZi§fn amXr`àn {]Ncn¨Xv `cW§m\w ]Ånbn \n¶msW¶mWv Ncn{XImc\mb Sn.sI. hÀ¡n tNÀ¯e A`n{]mbs¸«n«pÅXv.

F.Un 1004emWv `cW§m\w ]Ån Øm]nXambXv. AXphsc C¶m«pImcpsS CShI Acphn¯pdbmbncp¶p. `cW§m\¯v Hcp ]Ån Øm]n¡m³ thWvSn B¡Â, Adbv¡Â, {_m«nbm\n, NpWvSbnÂ, hÅnbmwXSw F¶o A©p IpSpw_¡mÀ tNÀ¶v \mSphmgnbmb ao\¨n IÀ¯mhnt\mSv At]£n¡pIbpw F.Un 1000mamWvSn A\paXn e`n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. ao\¨nemdnsâ Xoc¯v C¶s¯ `cW§m\w ]Ånbn \n¶p cWvSp ^ÀtemwKv sX¡pIng¡pamdn B\¡Ãp]pcbnS¯n tZhmeb Øm]\¯n\p {]mcw`ambn Hcp Ipcnip Øm]n¨p. CXn\nSbn ]Ån Øm]\¯n\p ap³ssI FSp¯hcpsS CSbn tZhmeb Øm]\w kw_Ôn¨v A`n{]mb hyXymkw DSseSp¯p. Bdnsâ CcpIcIfnepambn Xmakn¨ncp¶ AhÀ X§fpsS Icbn ]Ån Øm]n¡Wsa¶v Bhiys¸«tXmsSbmWv {]iv\w DSseSp¯Xv.

{]iv\w ao\¨n IÀ¯mhnsâ ]¡se¯n. sIm«mcwhI B\sb \Zoa[y¯n \nÀ¯n AXnsâ Xp¼nss¡bn Hcp IÃv FSp¯p hbv¡pI. B\ kzta[bm IÃv FhnsS sImWvSpt]mbn hbv¡p¶pthm AhnsS ]Ån Øm]n¡m³ A\phZn¡pI F¶Xmbncp¶p IÀ¯mhnsâ Xocpam\w. B\ IsÃSp¯v hSt¡Icbn C¶p `cW§m\w ]Ånbncn¡p¶ ]pcbnS¯n sImWvSpt]mbn h¨p. B¡¡pt¶Â F¶ \mbÀ IpSpw_¡mcpsS hIbmbncp¶p B Øew. IÀ¯mhv Ahscs¡mWvSv ]Ån¡v Zm\ambn Øew FgpXn sImSp¸n¨p. B¡¡pt¶Â IpSpw_¡mÀ¡v C¶pw ]Ånbn \n¶v AhImi§Ä \ÂIn hcp¶pWvSv.

t£{X amXrIbnepÅ ]ÅnbpsS inemØm]\w 1004 HmKÌv 15 \mbncp¶p. B\¡Ãp ]pcbnS¯n BZys¯ tZhmeb Øm]\mÀYw Ipcnip Øm]n¨XpsImtWvSm B\ IÃpsImWvSph¶p h¨ Øm\¯v ]Ån Øm]n¨XpsImtWvSm BWv `cW§m\w ]Ån¡v B\¡Ãp ]Ån F¶pIqSn t]cpWvSmbsX¶p ]dbs¸Sp¶p.

C¶p ImWp¶ amXmhnsâ \ma¯nepÅ `cW§m\w henb]Ån \memat¯XmWv. CXn\p ap¼pWvSmbncp¶ aq¶p ]ÅnIfpw ØnXn sNbvXncp¶Xv GXmWvSv CtX Øm\¯p Xs¶bmWv. cWvSmas¯ ]Ån ]Xn\memw \qämWvSn t£{XamXrIbnepw aq¶mas¯ ]Ån ]Xn\mdmw \qämWvSn t]mÀ«pKokv amXrIbnepw ]p\:À\nÀan¨p. C¶p ImWp¶ tKmYnIv amXrIbnepÅ \memas¯ ]Ån ]WnbpsS \nÀamWw 1913 XpS§n. ]qÀ¯nbmbXv 1928Â. sh«pIÃpw Ip½mbhpw D]tbmKn¨mWv CXp \nÀan¨Xv. iÀ¡c ]ibpw Rcf ]ibpw h{P]ibpw tNÀ¯ Ip½mbw knaâns\¡mÄ _ehpw Dd¸pw \ÂIpw. BÂ]vkv ]ÀhX \ncbv¡v hSt¡m«v sI«nS§fpsS \nÀamW¯n\v kzoIcn¨ inÂ] k{¼ZmbamWv tKmYnIv. ]{´WvSmw iXI¯n Bcw`n¨ Cu inÂ] k{¼Zmb¯n\v {^©pImÀ {]Nmcw \ÂIn. `cW§m\w sNdnb]Ån 1825 ]WnXXmWv. 1825 apX 15 hÀj¡mew `cW§m\¯pWvSmbncp¶ skan\mcnbpsS Nm¸embn Cu sNdnb ]Ån D]tbmKn¨ncp¶p. C¶p ImWp¶ hnip² sk_kvXymt\mknsâ Xncpkzcq]w ]Xnaq¶mw \qämWvSntem AXn\p apt¼m t]Àjybn \nÀan¨XmsW¶p ]dbs¸Sp¶p. \nebv¡en \n¶p `cW§m\t¯¡p IpSntbdnbhÀ AhnsS \n¶p sImWvSph¶XmWv Cu cq]w.

1890 `cW§m\w ]Ån s^mtdm\ ]Ånbmbn DbÀ¯s¸«p. 1599se DZbwt]cqÀ kp¶ltZmkn `cW§m\w ]ÅnbpsS {]Xn\n[nIfpw kw_Ôn¨ncp¶p. `cW§m\w SuWn Acbmepw InWdpw ØnXn sN¿p¶Xn\p sX¡p Ing¡p `mKw ]WvSv FSbm\n¡mSv \¼qXncnbpsSbpw hS¡p Ing¡p`mKw B¡¡pt¶Â F¶ \mbÀ IpSpw_¡mcpsSbpw hIbmbncp¶p. "tIcf ss{IkvXh ImfnZmk³' F¶ t]cn\Àl\mb almIhn I«¡b¯n sNdnbm³ am¸nf P\n¨Xv `cW§m\s¯ ¹mt¯m«w IpSpw_¯nemWv. At±l¯nsâ Úm\kv\m\w `cW§m\w ]Ånbnembncp¶p.

1897 ]p\:Øm]n¡s¸«XmWv C¶s¯ `cW§m\w skâv tacokv t_mbvkv sslkvIqÄ. 1972 AÂt^m³k dUnU³jy lbÀ sk¡³Udn kvIqfpw 1930 Fkv.F¨v tKÄkv sslkvIqfpw 1927 skâv enän t{Xkymkv FÂ.]n kvIqfpw NqWvSt¨cn km³tPmkv Cw¥ojv aoUnbw lbÀ sk¡³Udn kvIqfpw 2002 NqWvSt¨cn skâv tPmk^vkv F³Pn\obdnwKv tImfPpw Øm]nXambn.

kotdm ae_mÀ k`bn BZyw I¸q¨n³ B{iaw DWvSmbXv 1952 `cW§m\¯mWv. tIcf kpdnbm\n It¯men¡cpsS {]Ya Bip]{Xn 1948 `cW§m\¯p Øm]n¨p. Gjybnse Gähpw henb Aßmb t{]jnX kwLS\bmb sNdp]pjv] anj³ eoKnsâ XpS¡hpw `cW§m\¯mWv. 1968 `cW§m\¯n\p sXm«Sp¯v A¼mdbn Bcw`n¨ Fw.Fkv.Sn P\dteäv, AKXnIÄ¡mbpÅ kvt\l`h³, Un.Fkv.Sn t\mhotjyäv lukv XpS§nbhbpw `cW§m\¯nsâ {]m[m\yw hÀ[n¸n¡p¶p. AÂt^m³k Pohn¨ `cW§m\w ¢mcaTw 1910epw aTw It¸f 193132epw Øm]nXambn.

2004 `cW§m\w CShI¡mc\mb amÀ tPmk^v NcWIpt¶Â a[y{]tZinse sdbv]qÀ sa{Xm\mbn. 2004 At±lw sa{Xmt¸meo¯bmbn. AÂt^m³km½sb hnip²bmbn {]Jym]n¨tXmsS k¼¶amb Ncn{X]mc¼cyapÅ `cW§m\¯n\v Hcp s]m³Xqh IqSnbmbn.

hnip² AÂt^m³km½ \nc´cw sNmÃnbncp¶ {]mÀY\

Hm! Cutim\mYm! At§ ZnhylrZb¯nse apdnhn Fs¶ adbv¡Wsa. kvt\ln¡s¸Sphm\pw hneaXn¡s¸Sphm\papÅ Fsâ Bibn \n¶pw Fs¶ hnapàbm¡Wsa. IoÀ¯nbpw _lpam\hpw k¼mZn¡Wsa¶papÅ Zpjn¨ DZya¯nÂ\n¶pw Fs¶ c£n¡Wsa. Hcp ]ca AWphpw At§ ZnhylrZb¯nse kvt\lmánPzmebnse Hcp s]mcnbpw BIp¶Xphsc Fs¶ Ffnas¸Sp¯Wsa. krjvSnIsfbpw Fs¶Xs¶bpw ad¶pIfbp¶Xn\pÅ A\p{Klw F\n¡p XcWsa. ]dªdnbn¡m³ h¿m¯ am[pcyamb Fsâ Cutimsb, euInImizmk§sfÃmw F\n¡p Ibv]mbn ]IÀ¯Wsa. \oXnkqcy\mb Fsâ Cutimsb, \nsâ ZnhyIXncn\m Fsâ t_m[s¯ sXfnbn¨v, _p²nsb {]Imin¸n¨v, lrZbs¯ ip²oIcn¨v, \nsâ t\À¡pÅ kvt\l¯m Fcnbn¨v Fs¶ \nt¶mSv H¶n¸n¡Wsa. Bt½³.

Prayer of St. Alphonsa

O Lord Jesus, hide me in the wound of your Sacred Heart. Free me from my desire to be loved and esteemed. Guard me from my evil attempts to win fame and honor. Make me humble till I become a small pearl in the flame of love in your Sacred Heart. Grant me the grace to forget myself and all worldly things. Jesus, sweet beyond words, convert all worldly consolations into bitterness for me. O My Jesus, Sun of Justice, enlighten my intellect and mind with your sacred rays. Purify my heart, consume me with burning love for you, and make me one with you. Amen

Our Father.... Hail Mary.... Glory Be....


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