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C´ybnepw Ipdn¡Ww, sImeac¯n\p Nca¡pdn¸v

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UÂln Ubdn / tPmÀPv IÅnhbenÂ

`mcXcXv\ tUm. F.]n.sP. AÐpÄ Iemansâ thÀ]mSv temIsa§papÅ e£¡W¡n\v C´y¡mÀ¡v Hcn¡epw ambm¯ HmÀabmIpw. cmPys¯ P\§sf henb kz]v\w ImWm\pw AhcpsS Nn´Isfbpw BiIsfbpw {InbmßIambn t{]mPzen¸n¡m\pw ]Tn¸n¨XmIpw Iemansâ henb kw`mh\. C´ysb BWhiànbm¡p¶Xnepw tdm¡äv kmt¦XnIhnZybn temI¯n\p ap¶nse¯n¡p¶Xnepw t\XrXzw \ÂInb imkv{Xþ kmt¦XnI hnZKv[\pw kvIqÄ Ip«nIfn \msfsb¡pdn¨p {]Xo£ \evIp¶ emfnXy¯nsâ apJapÅ \à A[ym]I\pambncp¶p Cu ap³ cmjv{S]Xn.

AÐpÄ Iemansâ acW¯n\p ]n¶mse apwss_ t_mw_v kvt^mS\t¡knse {]Xn bm¡q_v taas\ Xq¡nteänbXp henb hmÀ¯bmbn. Iemans\¡pdn¨pw At±l¯nsâ amlmßy§sf¡pdn¨pw cmPys¯ ]{X, sSenhnj³ am[ya§Ä \nch[n {]tXyI teJ\§fpw ^o¨dpIfpw hniZambn Znhk§tfmfw \ÂIn. taasâ h[in£ \S¸m¡nbXns\s¨mÃnbpÅ hnhmZ§Ä¡pw IpdhpWvSmbnÃ. acW¯n FÃmhcpw Hcpt]msebmsW¶p IcpXp¶hsc amän Nn´n¸n¡p¶Xmbncp¶p HcpXc¯nepw kmayXIfnÃm¯ ChcpsS acW§Ä.

P\tImSnIfpsS a\kn {]XymibpsS IncW§Ä hnSÀ¯n A\´Imet¯mfw Pohn¡p¶ hyàn{]`mhamWv AÐpÄ IemantâXv. IÀathZnbn acn¨phoW Ieman\p tZiob XeØm\¯pw Xangv\m«nse P·\mSmb cmtaizc¯pw cmjv{St\Xm¡fpw km[mcW¡mcpw tNÀ¶p hnS\ÂInbt¸mÄ cmPyamsI tX§n.

]t£, Xo{hhmZnbmbn amdnb bm¡q_v taas\ Xq¡nteänbt¸mÄ cmPys¯ P\XbpsS hnImcw ISIhncp²ambncp¶p. Htc kapZmb¯nÂs¸« cWvSp t]cpsS PohnX§fnse amäw A{Xtbsd hepXmbncp¶p. ]T\¯n Ccphcpw anSp¡cmbncp¶psh¶Xv AXntesd hntcm[m`mkamIpw. AÐpÄ Iemw aXhnizmkw ssIhnSmsX atXXchmZnbpw GhÀ¡pw kzoImcy\pambn. F¶mÂ, bm¡q_v taa\pw ktlmZc³ ssSKÀ taa\psaÃmw 1993 amÀ¨v 12\p \nc]cm[nIfmb 257 t]scbmWp apwss_bnse `oIcm{IaW¯n sIms¶mSp¡nbXv. A¶v 713 t]À¡p ]cnt¡Â¡pIbpw sNbvXp.

`oIcXbv¡p am¸nÃ

cmPy¯ns\Xntc bp²w sN¿p¶ `oIcsc IÀ¡iambn t\cnSWsa¶Xn XÀ¡anÃ. bm¡q_v taat\m, km[mcW¡msc sIms¶mSp¡p¶ atäsX¦nepw Xo{hhmZntbm IcpW AÀln¡p¶nÃ. 1993se apwss_ kvt^mS\]c¼cbpsS NmeIiànbmbn {]hÀ¯n¨Xp taa\mbncps¶¶p cmPys¯ ]ctam¶X tImSXn AS¡apÅ tImSXnIÄ IsWvS¯nbXmWv.‘`oIcm{IaW¯n t\cn«p ]¦mfnbmbncp¶nsöXn\m bm¡q_n\p ISp¯ in£ \ÂIcpsX¶p hmZn¡p¶htcmSp tbmPn¡m\mInÃ. Xo{hhmZ {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡p ]tcm£ambn t]mepw klmbtam klIcWtam \ÂIp¶Xns\ Bcpw \ymboIcn¡cpXv.

AXn\m¯s¶ `oIcm{IaW tIkpIfnse {]XnItfmSp IcpWtbm A\p`mhtam XoÀ¯panÃ. Xo{hhmZnIfpsS {IqcXbv¡v CcbmIp¶ At\Iw km[mcW¡mÀ¡v CÃm¯ a\pjymhImi§Ä Xo{hhmZnIÄ¡v DsWvS¶p hnizkn¡p¶panÃ. AXn\m Xs¶ bm¡q_v taasâ h[in£sb¡pdnt¨m, AXp \S¸m¡m³ tI{µkÀ¡mcpw tImSXnIfpw Im«nb ipjvIm´nsb¡pdnt¨m Dbcp¶ hnaÀi\§fn ]¦mfnbmIp¶nÃ. ]t£, \ymbamb hnaÀi\§tfmSp ISp¯ AklnjvWpX {]ISn¸n¡p¶htcmSpw tbmPn¸nÃ.



shÅw tNÀ¯ `oIchncp²X

temIvk`bn tI{µ B`y´ca{´n cmPv\mYv knwKv C¶se ]dªXpt]mse `oIcXbv¡p PmXnbpw aXhpanÃ. `oIcm{IaW§fn sImÃs¸Sp¶hcn FÃm aXhnizmknIfpapWvSv. PmXnbpw aXhpw t\m¡nbmIcpXv `oIc{]hÀ¯\§sf sNdpt¡WvSXv. ]uc·mcpsS kwc£WamWv Gähpw {][m\w.`oIcXbmWv C¶p temIw t\cnSp¶ Gähpw henb shÃphnfn.

]t£, KpPdm¯nepw amteKmhnepw Nne `oIcm{IaW tIkpIfnse {]XnIÄ ISp¯ in£IfnÂ\n¶p c£s¸Sp¶Xv tI{µkÀ¡mcnsâ `oIchncp² {]kvXmh\bnse BßmÀYX¡pdhv shfnhm¡p¶Xmbn Bt£]apWvSv. F{XXs¶ \ymboIcn¨mepw ]pXnb tI{µkÀ¡mÀ A[nImc¯nse¯nb tijw `oIcm{IaW tIkpIfn Hcp kapZmb¯nÂs¸«hsc am{Xw Xq¡nteäm\pÅ hy{KX ImWp¶Xns\ NneÀ Ipäw ]dbp¶Xns\ ]mtS XÅm\mInÃ.

t\ct¯ h[in£bv¡p hn[n¡s¸« ]ecpsSbpw Imcy¯n Xocpam\w A\´ambn \ofpt¼mgmWp tZiob ZpxJmNcWhpw {]XnbpsS P·Zn\hpwt]mepw ]cnKWn¡msX taas\ Xq¡nteänbXv. 1984se UÂlnbnse kn¡v Iq«s¡me, 2002se KpPdm¯v hÀKob Iq«s¡me, inhtk\¡mcpw aäpw {]XnIfmb 1992se apwss_ hÀKobIem]w XpS§nbhbnse {]XnIÄ¡p sIme¡bÀ t]mbn«p ]eÀ¡pw Poh]cy´w t]mepw Ct¸mgpanÃ. ]ecpw cmjv{Sob taemf·mcmbn hnekpIbpw sN¿p¶p. h[in£IfpsS sam¯w IW¡pambn h¶mepw tI{µkÀ¡mcnsâ apJ¯p ]Xnbp¶ hnthN\¯nsâ \ng ImWmsX t]mInÃ.

sIme¡bdnsâ Ipcp¡gnbWw

bm¡q_v taasâ h[in£ cmPyw \S¸m¡n¡gnªp. APva Ik_n\pw A^vk Kpcphn\pw ]n¶mse taas\bpw Xq¡nteänbXp `oIc{]hÀ¯\¯n\p apXncp¶hÀ¡pÅ henb Xm¡oXmtIWvSXmWv. AXn\m¯s¶ taa\p sIme¡bÀ \ÂInbXnsâ icnsXäpIsf C\n Iodnapdn¨p cmPy¯p IqSpX hÀKobXbv¡p hfwhbvt¡WvSXnÃ. SmU {]tXyI tImSXnbpw sslt¡mSXnbpw kp{]ow tImSXnbpw h[in£bv¡p taa³ AÀl\msW¶p hn[n¨Xns\ \oXn\ymb hyhØsb _lpam\n¡p¶hÀ tNmZyw sN¿pIbà thWvSXv.

cmPy¯p \S¸nem¡nb h[in£sb¡pdn¨p XÀ¡n¡msX C\nbpw Bscsb¦nepw Xq¡nteäp¶Xp icnbmtWm F¶Xp am{XamIs« cmPys¯ NÀ¨. BtKmfXe¯n h[in£ \ntcm[\w henb NÀ¨bmWv. h[in£m\ntcm[\w kw_Ôn¨v A´ÀtZiob, tZiob Xe§fn \S¡p¶ hmZ{]XnhmZ§sf hniIe\w sN¿m\pÅ kµÀ`ambn am{Xw ]pXnb kw`hs¯ ImWp¶XmIpw DNnXw.

I®n\p I®v, tNmcbv¡p tNmc XpS§nb in£IÄ ]cnjvIrX kaql¯n\p tbmPn¨XÃ. GXp Xc¯nepÅ h[in£bpw {]mIrXhpw A]cnjvIrXhpamb coXnbmsW¶v B\wÌn CâÀ\mjW NqWvSn¡m«p¶p. kndnbbnepw Cdm¡nepw aäpw sFFkv `oIcÀ \S¸m¡p¶ AXn{Iqcamb Poht\msS Xebd¡Â apX C´ybn \S¸m¡p¶ sIme¡bdn Xq¡nteä hscbpÅ h[in£IÄ Xs¶. {IqcXbpsS ImTn\y¯nse hyXymkw Hgn¨m FÃmw {]mIrXamb h[¯nsâ hyXykvX cq]§Ä am{XamsW¶v Bw\Ìn t]mepÅ a\pjymhImi kwLS\Ifpw a\pjyPoh\p ]mh\X Iev]n¡p¶hcpw ]dbp¶Xv.

C\nbpw apJw Xncn¡cpXv

1948se kmÀh{XnI a\pjymhImi {]Jym]\¯n Pohn¡m\pÅ AhImiw Du¶n¸dbp¶p. H¸w a\pjXzclnXhpw {Iqchpamb ]oUn¸n¡epIÄ¡v Bcpw hnt[bcm¡s¸ScpsX¶pw hniZoIcn¡p¶pWvSv. C´ybpw Cu a\pjymhImi {]Jym]\¯nse AwKamWv.

FÃm Ipämtcm]nXÀ¡pw ]qÀWamb \nba]cnc£tbm, \oXnbpàamb hnNmcWtbm e`n¡m¯ A]qÀh kmlNcy§fpapWvSv. kmbv_¶ \nP¸ \m«nIcpÄs¸sSbpÅ 12 t]cpsS h[in£ sXämb kmlNcy¯n hn[n¡s¸«XmsW¶pw AXn\m Cfhp sN¿s¸tSWvSXmsW¶pw NqWvSn¡m«n 14 ap³ PUvPnamÀ cmjv{S]Xn¡p \nthZ\w kaÀ¸n¨Xpw ad¡m\mInÃ.

k¼qÀWamb h[in£m \ntcm[\amWv 1989se cmjv{Sob ]ucmhImi§Ä kw_Ôn¨ A´mcmjv{S DS¼SnbpsS (CâÀ\mjW Ih\âv Hm¬ knhn B³Uv s]mfnän¡Â ssdävkv þ sFknkn]nBÀ) cWvSmw amÀK\nÀtZiItcJ A\pimkn¡p¶Xv. kaql a\xkm£nbpsS C¡mcy¯nepÅ hÀ[n¨ XmXv]cyamWp h[in£ \S¸m¡epIÄ achn¸n¡Wsa¶ bpF³ samdt«mdnb¯n\v CSbm¡nbXpw. temI¯nse {]apJcmb 105 cmjv{S§Ä CXn\\pIqeambn thm«v sNbvXt¸mÄ, C´ybpÄs¸sS 48 cmPy§Ä am{XamWv FXnc`n{]mbw tcJs¸Sp¯nbXv. BtKmfXe¯n h[in£m \nÀamÀP\ bXv\§Ä IqSpX kPohamWnt¸mÄ.

A]qÀh§fn A]qÀh§fmb tIkpIfn HgnsI a\pjyPoht\mSp imizXhpw bYmÀYhpamb ]cnKW\ thWsa¶v D¶X \oXn]oT§Ä hyàam¡nbn«pWvSv. F¦nepw \nbakwhn[m\¯neqsS Pohs\Sp¡p¶Xn\v FXntcbpÅ {]Xntcm[w C\nbpw iàns¸tSWvSXpWvSv. acWin£bv¡p kz´w \nebn Nca¡pdns¸gpXm³ `cWt\XrXz¯n\pw tImSXnIÄ¡pw Ct¸mgpw \ne\n¡p¶ hnapJXbv¡p ImcW§Ä ]eXpWvSv.

`cWIqS hy{KX B]¯v

h[in£bvs¡Xntc BtKmfXe¯nepw PUvPnamÀ¡nSbnepw \ne]mSv iàambn hcp¶Xp kzmKXmÀlamWv. F¶ncp¶mepw P\hnImcs¯ Xr]vXns¸Sp¯m\pÅ Hcmbp[sa¶ \nebn h[in£ hn[n¡s¸Sp¶Xpw \S¸m¡p¶Xpw ASp¯ Ime¯p IqSnhcp¶psh¶p ]dbmsX XcanÃ. am¸Àln¡m¯ sXäp sNbvXpsh¶Xnt\msSm¸w P\{]nb \ne]mSpIfpambn tImSXnIfpw XmZmßyw {]m]n¡p¶Xnsâ kqN\IfmWp Ignª ]¯p hÀj¯n am{Xw cmPy¯v 1303 t]sc h[in£bv¡p hn[n¨Xv.

bm¡q_v taasâbpw A^vk Kpcphnsâbpw h[in£ \S¸nem¡m³ `cWIqSw Im«nb hy{KXbv¡p ]n¶n cmjv{Sob apXseSp¸pw A\pIqe P\hnImchpw e£yam¡nsb¶ Btcm]Ww Dbcm\pw ImcWw asäm¶Ã. PpUojdnbpsS ASnØm\X¯z§Ä kÀ¡mcnsâ P\{]nb \ne]mSpIfpambn XmZmßyw {]m]n¡p¶Xnse A]IS§fpw ImWmsX t]mIcpXv.

BÂt_À Iayphnsâ "dn^vfIvj³kv Hm¬ Z KnÃän³' F¶ teJ\¯nsâ apJy {]Xn]mZyhnjbw `cWIqS¯mepÅ sIme]mXIamWv. temIw NÀ¨sNbvX UÂlnbnse AXn{Iqc am\`wK¯n\ncbmb \nÀ`b tIknse {]Xn¡p h[in£ hn[n¨t¸mgpw P\hnImc¯nsâ {]Xn^e\w IqSnbmbncp¶p.

temIw Ipcp¡gn¨p, C\n C´y

{]mIrXhpw a\pjyXzclnXhpamb h[in£ Ahkm\n¸n¡p¶Xns\¡pdn¨v tZiobXe¯n kwhmZw \St¡WvSXpWvSv. Cw¥WvSv, {^m³kv, PÀa\n, Hmkvt{Senb, AÀPâo\, saIvknt¡m, Im\U, s\XÀe³Uvkv, Cäen, Hmkv{Snb, t]mfWvSv, kzoU³, kznävkÀe³Uv, lwKdn, kvs]bn³, \yqkne³Uv, bps{Ibn³, Dkvs_¡nØm³, sh\tkze, DdptKz, sdmam\nb, ^nen¸o³kv, {Kokv, Z£nWm{^n¡ XpS§nbh apX t\¸mÄ, `q«m³, h¯n¡m³, ]m\a, tlmWvSpdmkv, Iwt_mUnb, \ao_nb, audojykv, kosjÂkv, samkmw_nIv hscbpÅ 98 cmPy§Ä k¼qÀWambpw h[in£ Ahkm\n¸n¨p. aäp ]e cmPy§fpw Xq¡nteä `mKnIambn \ntcm[n¡pItbm ^e¯n \S¸m¡nXncn¡pItbm sN¿p¶p.

^e¯nÂ, temI¯nse 140 cmPy§Ä h[in£bv¡p Nca¡pdns¸gpXn¡gnªp. {]mIrXcoXnbn tNmcbv¡p tNmcsb¶ càZml¯n\mbpÅ coXn Dt]£n¡m³ C´y C\nbpw sshIcpXv. A½sb XÃnbmepw cWvSp ]£w ]dbp¶ \mWt¡Sn\p apXncmsX A\mhiy XÀ¡apbÀ¯n hnhmZ¯n\Ã, hnthI]qÀWamb \S]Sn¡mbn Iq«mbn ]cn{ian¡mw.


IÀjI AhKW\bv¡pw Xo{hhmZ¯n\pw AgnaXn¡psaXntc tamN\bm{X

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^m. tP¡_v Pn. ]mebv¡m¸nÅn

`mKykvacWmÀl\mb \n[ocn¡Â amWn¡¯\mcpsS at\mapIpc¯n Dcphmb Nn´bmWp tIcf¯nse It¯men¡k`bnse AwK§fpsS Hcp s]mXpkwLS\ F¶Xv. 1904þ At±l¯nsâ t\XrXz¯n ]mdmbn hÀ¡n Ahncm XcI³, sXÅnbn amXyp h¡oÂ, kn. A´¸mbn, Ipcphn\m¡pt¶Â sXm½³, ]ÅnhmXp¡Â NmWvSn, kndnbIv \n[ocn F¶nhÀ tNÀ¶p {]Ya BtemN\ \S¯n. Xsâ Bibw {]mhÀ¯nIambn ImWm³ \n[ocn¡Â amWn¡¯\mÀ¡mbnÃ. At±lw Imebh\nIbv¡pÅn adªp.

F¦nepw ]mdmbn hÀ¡n Ahncm XcIsâ t\XrXz¯n hnhn[ kt½f\§Ä \S¯s¸«p. Cu kt½f\§fpsSbpw NÀ¨IfpsSbpw HSphn 1918þ It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kknsâ BZncq]amb "tIcf {InkvXob almP\k`'sb¶pw ]n¶oSp tIcf It¯men¡m almP\k`sb¶pw Adnbs¸« kapZmbkwLS\ ]ndhnsbSp¯p. {]Ya {]knUâmbn FdWmIpfw hnImcnbm¯nsâ sa{Xm\mbncp¶ amÀ fqbokv ]tg]d¼n sXcsªSp¡s¸«p. ZiI§Ä¡n¸pdamWp It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv F¶v Cu kwLS\ Adnbs¸«p XpS§nbXv.

kmaqlnI {]Xn_²XbpsS {]XoIambn«mWp It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv {]hÀ¯n¨n«pÅXv. kzmX{´y{]m]vXn¡p ap¼v XncphnXmwIqdnepw sIm¨nbnepw iàambn {]hÀ¯n¨p. ]n¶oSv XncpþsIm¨n kwØm\w cq]oIrXambt¸mÄ XncpþsIm¨n kwØm\¯p \nÀWmbI cmjv{Sobiànbmbn Cu kwLS\. It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kknsâ {]Xn\n[nIÄ XncpþsIm¨n \nbak`bn AwK§fmbn«pWvSv. kÀ¡mÀ DtZymK§fn Nne {]tXyI hn`mK¯n s]«hÀ am{Xw {]thin¡s¸«ncp¶ kmlNcy¯n CXc kapZmb§fpambn ssItImÀ¯v iàamb AhImikwc£W {]t£m`§Ä¡v Cu kwLS\ t\XrXzw sImSp¯n«pWvSv. P\kwJym\p]mXnIamb {]mXn\n[yw {]Pmk`bn e`n¡p¶Xn\pthWvSn \S¯nb 1933þse \nhÀ¯\ {]t£m`w Ncn{XamWv.

dh\ypþ tZhkzw Hä hIp¸mbn {]hÀ¯n¨ncp¶ Ime¯p sslµhcÃm¯hÀ¡p kÀ¡mÀ DtZymKw In«mXncp¶ kmlNcyapWvSmbn. It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv t\XrXzw sImSp¯ 1922þse ]uckaXzhmZ {]t£m`w {]kvXpX hIp¸ns\ dh\yp hIps¸¶pw tZhkzw hIps¸¶pw hn`Pn¡p¶Xn\v CSbm¡n. kÀ kn.]n. cmakzman A¿cpsS Ime¯pw ]n¶oSpw hnZym`ymktaJesb tZikmXvIcn¡m\pÅ kÀ¡mÀ DZya§sf ]cmPbs¸Sp¯nb kac§fn ap¶Wnt¸mcmfnIfmbn It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv {]hÀ¯IÀ DWvSmbncp¶p.

kzmX{´y{]m]vXn¡pap¼v kPohambncp¶ Cu kwLS\ tIcf kwØm\ cq]oIcW¯n\ptijw A{X kPohambn ImWs¸«nÃ. Aevamb kaqlw hnhn[ cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«nIfn kPoh {]hÀ¯Icmbn amdn. A[nImc cmjv{Sob¯n Xmev]cyw hÀ[n¨hÀ kz´ambn ]mÀ«nIÄ DWvSm¡n. kmapZmbnI Nn´ A`nImayaÃmsb¶ [mcW k`mt\XrXz¯n\pw DWvSmbn. C§s\ ]e ImcW§fmepw iàhpw NSpehpamsbmcp t\XrXz¯nsâ A`mhw aqehpw kwLS\m{]hÀ¯\w \maam{Xambn.

CXp cWvSmw hchv

kmaqlnI hnjb§Ä NÀ¨ sN¿p¶Xn\pw ]Tn¡p¶Xn\pw {]XnIcn¡p¶Xn\pw kapZmbmwK§Ä¡v Hcpan¨phcm\pÅ s]mXpthZn F¶ \nebn It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkn\pÅ {]kàn Xncn¨dnªpsImWvSp k`m t\XrXzw Cu kwLS\sb Ct¸mÄ iàns¸Sp¯pIbmWv. CXv Hcp cWvSmw hchmWv. k`m t\XrXz¯nsâ AIagnª ]n´pWtbmSpw [ocXbmÀ¶ t\XrXzt¯mSpsam¸w kapZmbkvt\lnIfmb AevambÀ iàamb {]hÀ¯\ ]²XnItfmsS apt¶m«phcnIbmWv.

aebmfa®nsâ {]tXyI kmaqlnI kmlNcy¯n DSseSp¯ kwLS\sb¶ \nebv¡v Ct¸mÄ tIcf¯n kwPmXamIp¶ kmaqlnI kmlNcy§fn Cu kwLS\bpsS {]kàn It¯men¡m k`mwK§Ä a\knem¡p¶Xnsâ sXfnhmWv ASnb´c {i² ]XntbWvS hnjb§Ä DbÀ¯n¸nSn¨p \S¯p¶ tamN\bm{X. IÀjI AhKW\, aXXo{hhmZw, AgnaXn F¶o aq¶p {][m\ hnjb§Ä tIcf kaql¯nsâ ASnb´c {i²bn sImWvSphcp¶Xn\mWp It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv \msf apX HmKÌv F«phsc tamN\bm{X \S¯p¶Xv. Xncph\´]pc¯p\n¶p {]knUâv hn.hn. AKÌn\pw ImkÀtKmUp\n¶v P\d sk{I«dn AUz. _nPp ]db\nehpw \bn¡p¶ PmY HmKÌv F«n\v A¦amenbn kam]n¡pw.

tIcf¯nse P\kwJybn _lp`qcn]£w hcp¶ IÀjIcpsS bYmÀY {]iv\§fnte¡p Kuchambn {i² ]Xn¸n¡m³ Hcp cmjv{Sob {]Øm\hpw BßmÀYambn ]cn{ian¨p ImWp¶nÃ. A[zm\n¡p¶ IÀjI\v Ahsâ A[zm\¯nsâ tXmX\pkcn¨p hne In«p¶nÃ. DXv]¶§fpsS hnebnSnhn\p ]cnlmcw tXSn Hm^okpIÄ Ibdnbnd§pIbÃmsX \nhr¯nbnÃ. ISs¡WnsImWvSp hoÀ¸pap«p¶ IÀjIt\mSp ^eclnXamb Bizmkhm¡pIÄ ]dbp¶ kÀ¡mÀ kwhn[m\§Ä ]p\x]cntim[\bv¡p hnt[bam¡s¸SWw.

Hcp ImeL«¯n IqSpX Irjn`qanbpWvSmbncp¶ IÀjIsc P·nIsf¶pw _qÀjzIsf¶pw ap{ZIp¯n IÀjI]oU\w \S¯nb Ncn{Xw ChnSs¯ Nne cmjv{Sob]mÀ«nIÄ¡pWvSv. X§Ä sImbvX hbepIÄ X§fptSXm¡n Xcnin«p IrjnbnÃmXm¡nbt¸mÄ \jvSw kw`hn¨Xp IÀjI\p am{Xaà tIcfP\Xbv¡v H¶S¦amWv. ag h¶p ]mS¯p shÅwIbdn Irjn \in¡p¶Xv C¡meL«¯nepw ]pXpabpÅXÃ. sIm¿m\pÅ b{´w t]mepw bYmkabw s\¡rjn¡mc\p \ÂIm\pÅ kua\kyw ImWn¡m¯ cmjv{Sob þ DtZymKØ kwkvImcw F{X am{Xw lo\amsW¶p Nn´n¡Ww.

tIcf¯nsâ k¼ZvhyhØsb iàam¡nb d_À IÀjIsc BZcn¡pIbà adn¨v AhKWn¡pIbmWp kÀ¡mÀ sN¿p¶Xv. hne¯IÀ¨sImWvSp d_Àac§Ä apdn¨pIfbm³ \nÀ_ÔnXcmb d_À IÀjItcmSp klX]n¡m³ Hcp cmjv{Sob{]Øm\hpw apt¶m«ph¶nÃ. tIcf¯nsâ ]e `mK§fn It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv iàamb {]t£m`§Ä \S¯nbXn\p tijamWp IÀjIcpsS D¶a\w X§fpsS apJap{Zsb¶ h¼p]dbp¶ ]mÀ«n¡mÀ t]mepw IÀjI\pthWvSn Aev]w i_vZn¡m³ Xp\nªXv. AkwLSnXcmb IÀjIcpsS Bhiy§tfmSp ]pdwXncnªp \nev¡p¶ kÀ¡mÀ kwhn[m\§Ä BÀ¡pthWvSn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶hbmsW¶p cWvSmasXm¶pIqSn tNmZnt¡WvSnhcpw.

IÀjIÀ shdpw thm«p _m¦Ã

t{SUv bqWnb³ t]mepÅ kwLSnXiànbnÃm¯ IÀjIsc shdpw thm«p _m¦v am{Xambn ImWp¶ CSp§nb Nn´mcoXn C¶m«nse {]_e cmjv{SobI£nIÄ amänbnsæn iàamb Xncn¨Sn t\cntSWvSnhcpsa¶ ap¶dnbn¸mWv Cu kacw apt¶m«phbv¡p¶Xv.

ImÀjnI taJe h³ km¼¯nI {]XnkÔnbn \«wXncnbpt¼mÄ hgn]mSv kac§Ä \S¯n IÀjIcpsS I®n s]mSnbn«p thm«v t\Sp¶ cmjv{SobIuiew IÀjIÀ Xncn¨dnbp¶pWvSv. hmKvZm\§Ä ]mgvhm¡pIfmbn ]cnWan¡p¶Xp \nXykw`hambXn\m IÀjIÀ¡p cmjv{Sob¡mcpsS hmKvZm\§fn hnizmkanÃmXmbn. ImÀjnI {]XnkÔn cq£ambn XpScp¶ kmlNcy¯nepw _m¦pIÄ P]vXn \S]SnIfpambn IÀjIsc th«bmSpIbmWv. ImÀjnI IS§Ä¡pÅ tamdt«mdnbw ZoÀLn¸n¡Wsa¶ IÀjIcpsS Bhiyt¯mSv kÀ¡mÀ A\Iqeambn {]XnIcn¨p ImWp¶nÃ.

ImÀjnI B\pIqey§Ä¡pw k_vknUnIÄ¡pw IÀjIsc tbmKycm¡p¶ IÀjI cPnkvt{Sj³ \S]SnIÄ A«nadn¡s¸Sp¶p. 2012 þ  CXmcw`ns¨¦nepw 20 iXam\w IÀjIÀ¡pt]mepw cPnÌÀ sN¿m\mbn«nÃ. A£b skâdpIfn¡qSn cPnkvt{Sj³ \S¯p¶Xnsâ A{]mtbmKnIX IÀjIÀ NqWvSn¡mWn¨n«pw AXn\p ]cnlmcapWvSmbn«nÃ. kÀ¡mÀ Un¸mÀ«psaâpIfpsS GtIm]\anÃmbvabmWp IÀjI cPnkvt{Sj\p XSkw \nev¡p¶sX¶pw IÀjIÀ NqWvSn¡mWn¡pIbpWvSmbn.

kÀ¡mcnsâ dh\yp hcpam\w hÀ[n¸n¡p¶Xn\pthWvSn IÀjIcpsSta km¼¯nI`mcw ASnt¨ev]n¡p¶ hÀ[n¸n¨ \nIpXn ]n³hen¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ XbmdmIWw. {]IrXnbpsS lcnXm` Ipäaähn[w \ne\nÀ¯m³ bXv\n¡p¶Xnt\msSm¸w \m«pImcpsS hni¸Iäm³ A[zm\n¡p¶ IÀjIs\ cWvSmwXcw ]uc·mcmbn ImWp¶ kÀ¡mÀ \S]Sn Ahkm\n¸n¡Ww. tIcf¯nsâ k¼ZvLS\sb iàambn \ne\nÀ¯p¶ IÀjIÀ kwLSnXiànbmbn DbÀ¶phcnIXs¶ sN¿pw. kwLSnXtijn ssIapXem¡nbhÀ kacw sNbvXpw `ojWns¸Sp¯nbpw \nIpXnhcpam\¯nsâ knwl`mKhpw ssIbn«phmcns¡mWvSpt]mIp¶ hÀ¯am\Ime bmYmÀYy¯nsâ ap¼n ]I¨p\nev¡msX kÀhiàntbmSpw IqSn sFIy¯nsâ ]mXbnte¡p tIcf IÀjIÀ apt¶m«phcp¶Xnsâ `mKw IqSnbmWv Cu tamN\bm{X.

A¶w Xcp¶ ssIIsf X¨pSbv¡p¶ kwkvImcw tIcf¯n iàamIpIbmtWm? shfps¡ Nncn¨v, shfp¯ jÀ«pw apWvSpw [cn¨v IÀjIsc ssIhoin¡mWn¡p¶ cmjv{Sob t\XrXzw Ahsc sImª\wIp¯pIbmtWm? tIm«pw kq«pw [cn¨v ap´nb hml\§fn bm{X sN¿p¶hÀ a{´ntbm^okpIfnte¡v B\bn¡s¸Sp¶p. Fgpt¶äp\n¶v ssIIÄ Iq¸n XeIp\n¨v Ahsc kzoIcn¡p¶ `cWt\XrXzw XoctZi \nba§Ä, sI«nS\nÀamW \nba§Ä, Irjn`qan Irjn¡p am{Xsa¶ \nba§Ä F¶nh ChÀ¡pthWvSn amänsbgpXp¶p. CXnsâsbms¡ ap¼n C¶m«nse A[zm\hÀKamb IÀjIÀ \nÀhnImcXtbmsS t\m¡n\nev¡p¶ Imew AkvXan¡pIbmWv.

Irjn`qan IÀjI\v AhImis¸«sX¦n `qam^nbIÄ¡pthWvSnbpw hyhkmbnIÄ¡p thWvSnbpw Irjn`qan ]nSns¨Sp¡m\pÅ \nbas¯ [ocambn t\cnSm³ IÀjI³ iànbpÅh\msW¶p `cWt\XrXzw Xncn¨dnbpw.

[qÀ¯p \S¯n hyhkmbw apSnª C´ybnse Hcp iXtImSoizc hyhkmbn¡pthWvSn AbmfpsS IS§Ä FgpXn¯Ånb kÀ¡mÀ, ]mhs¸« IÀjI\p {]IrXnZpc´w sImWvSpw ImemhØm hyXnbm\w sImWvSpw Irjn\miapWvSmbXpaqew hmbv] Xncn¨Sbv¡m³ \nhr¯nbnÃmXmIp¶ AhØsb \njvIcpWw XÅn¡fbp¶p.

AkwLSnX hn`mKamWp IÀjIÀ. kwLS\IÄ ]eXpsWvS¦nepw t{SUv bqWnb³ _ew AhÀ¡nÃ. kÀ¡mÀ kÀhoknepÅhcpsS XtâStam AhImi§Ä¡p thWvSnbpÅ `cWkvXw`\tam IÀjI³ \S¯p¶nÃ. AhKW\bpsS ap¼n AIs¸«pt]mb IÀjIcpsS s\m¼c§Ä Gäphm§n It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv AhÀ¡pthWvSn i_vZn¡pIbmWv.

AgnaXnbn ap§nb tIcfw

AgnaXn `cWkwhn[m\¯nsâ ]cymbambn amdn. ]©mb¯v Xew apX ]mÀesaâv Xew hsc AgnaXnbpsS Id ]pcfm¯ `cWkwhn[m\ansömbn. P\t£a ]²XnIÄ¡mbn Hcp cq] _Pän hIbncp¯nbm sXm®qdp ss]kbpw ]²Xn \S¯n¸nsâ ]Ým¯e kwhn[m\§Ä¡pthWvSn sNehgnt¡WvSn hcp¶psh¶p ]dbs¸Sp¶p. kwLSnXiànsImWvSp \nIpXn¸Ww Npcp¡w NnecpsS D]Poh\amÀKam¡p¶Xpw AgnaXnbmWv. kÀ¡mÀ kwhn[m\§Ä AgnaXn apàam¡s¸Sp¶nsæn hnIk\sa¶Xv GXm\pw NnecpsS kzImcyhnIk\w am{Xambn A[x]Xn¡pw.

]Ww, kzm[o\w, {]tem`\w, Iuiew, NXn F¶n§s\ hnhn[ apJmhcW§Ä AWnªv AgnaXn A[nImctI{µ§fn ]Xnbncn¡p¶pWvSv. AXnsâ kzm[o\¯n hgns¸«pt]mIm¯ cmjv{Sobt\XrXzs¯bpw DtZymKØscbpw tIcf¯nse bphXzw kz]v\w ImWpIbmWv. AgnaXnclnX tIcfsa¶ bphP\ kz]v\s¯ km£mXvIcn¡m³ kpa\kpIfmb kÀhtcbpw kzmKXw sN¿p¶p.

DtZymKØ þ cmjv{Sob þ aX þ kmwkvImcnI Xe§fn am{Xaà ImÀjnI þ hymhkmbnI Xe§fpw PpUojdnbpw AgnaXnhnapàam¡s¸SWw. k¶² kwL§fpw kwLS\Ifpw AgnaXnhnapàamIWw. Npcp¡¯nÂ, ]qÀhnIÀ kz]v\w IWvS “IÅhpw NXnbpanÃm¯ aebmf\mSv ]p\cpÖohn¸n¡m³ \à a\kpÅ kIecpw Htc a\tkmsS AWntNcWsa¶p It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv B{Kln¡p¶p.

temIw apgph³ `b¯nemsW¶p tXm¶n¸n¡p¶ hn[apÅ hmÀ¯IfmWv \mw tI«psImWvSncn¡p¶Xv. HcmfpsS aXhnizmkw asämcmfpsS aXhnizmkw sImWvSp tNmZyw sN¿s¸Sp¶p. Xsâ aXhnizmk¯nÂs¸Sm¯hÀ Pohn¡m³ t]mepw AÀlcsöp IcpXp¶ \ne]mSv AwKoIcn¡m\mhp¶XÃ. sshhn[y§sf am\n¨v BZcthmsS ]cnc£n¨pt]m¶ `mcXkwkvImcs¯ \nÀeÖw AhKWn¡p¶ {]hWX \½psS \m«nepw hÀ[n¡p¶p.

hnizmknsb kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw cmjv{S¯nsâ \nbaw t]mseXs¶ aX¯nsâ \nbahpw BZcthmsS ]men¡s¸tSWvSXmWv. Aev]kabt¯¡v HcmÄ¡p am{Xamtbm Hcp kaql¯n\p Xs¶tbm cmjv{S\nba§fn Cfhp \ÂIpI km[yaÃ. A§s\sb¦n F´psImWvSmWp ]co£IfpsS t]cn aXhnizmk¯nsâ {]XoI§sf Ipd¨p kabt¯¡p amänhbv¡p¶Xn sXänsÃsb¶p ]dbm³ IgnbpI?

A[nImcw ]cnc£n¡m\pÅXv

A[nImcw `bs¸Sp¯m\pÅXÃ, ]cnc£n¡m\pÅXmWv. A\oXn]camb \n_Ô\Isf tNmZyw sN¿p¶hÀ ]ucXz¯n\v AÀlcÃmsb¶v D¯chmZnXzs¸« cmjv{Sob t\Xm¡·mÀ¡p ]dbm³ Ignbp¶sX§s\? aXhnizmk§sf {hWs¸Sp¯p¶ {]kvXmh\Itfm {]hÀ¯\§tfm FXnÀ¡s¸tSWvSXmWv. Xsâ am{Xw aXhnizmk¯n\¸pdw a\pjyXzs¯¡pdn¨p Nn´n¡m\pw CXc aXhnizmk kaql§sf am\n¡m\pw AWnIsf ]cnioen¸nt¡WvS D¯chmZnXzw _Ôs¸«hÀ¡pWvSv.

AXoh Pm{KX ]peÀ¯nbnsæn `mcX¯nsâ ]pIÄs]ä aXssa{Xn XIÀ¶pt]mIpw. ]ucmWnIamb aXssa{Xn XIÀ¡m³ Nne IpÕnX Nn´IÀ t_m[]qÀhw DZyan¡p¶pWvSv. `mcXs¯ kvt\ln¡p¶, sshhn[ys¯ am\n¡p¶ hcpwXeapdbv¡pw kam[m\t¯msS klhÀ¯n¡m³ IgnbWsa¶min¡p¶ kpa\kpIsfsbÃmw aXXo{hhmZ¯ns\Xntc AWn\nc¡Ww. FÃm aX§sfbpw BNmcm\pjvTm\§sfbpw BZcn¡pIhgn \mw \½psS amXrcmPy¯nsâ bikv hnizt¯mfw DbÀ¯pIbmbncn¡pw sN¿pI.

(It¯men¡m tIm¬{Kkv kwØm\ UbdÎdmWv teJI³)


hm«vkv B¸nte¡p Imepw \o«n!

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Hu«v Hm^v td©v / tPm¬k¬ ]qh´pcp¯v

Ipgnbnte¡p se¤pw \o«nbncn¡p¶ hey½bpsS B{Klw tI«p acpaIÄ aq¡¯p hncÂh¨pt]mbn. F¶n«p Xebnse hn¤v NoIn shSn¸m¡ns¡mWvSncp¶ `À¯mhns\ CXp tIt«msb¶ a«n CSwI®ns«m¶p t\m¡n. F´n\pw GXn\pw A`n{]mbw ]dbp¶ ]pÅn¡mc³ {][m\a{´nsbt¸mse X{´]camb au\w Ahew_n¨p \n¡pIbmWv. CXn\nsS, hey½ A¸pdt¯¡p amdnb iq\ythfbn `mcy hnjbw hoWvSpw D¶bn¨p, hey½bv¡p ]pXpXmbn Cd§nb kn\na ImWWat{X. k`mkvXw`\w Hgnhm¡m³ hey½bpsS Bhiyw ]cnKWn¡p¶XmWp \ÃsX¶p tXm¶nb k`m[y£³ hnjbw sIm¨paIsâ k_vPIvSv I½nän¡p hn«p.

{In¡äv ssaXm\¯p _mäpambn Dcp«n¸nSn¨psImWvSncp¶ sIm¨paIs\ ASnb´cambn hn¸psImSp¯p hnfn¨phcp¯n. HmhÀ Xocp¶Xn\pap¼p Ifn\nÀ¯n t]mtcWvSn h¶Xnsâ \ockhpambn«mWp Ah³ h¶sX¦nepw C¶nwKvkv Xocmdmb hey½bpsS hnjbambXn\m Ah³ Hmhdm¡nbnÃ. ]pXnb kn\na ImWWsa¶ hey½bpsS tamls¯¡pdn¨p tI«t¸mÄ sIm¨paIsâ kv{Io\nte¡v BZyw sXfnªXp _mlp_enbpsS aknep]nSn¯amWv! Cuizcm, sXm®qdp]n¶n« hey½ _mlp_ensbms¡ Xm§ptam? Ah³ apJwXncn¨p hey½sb t\m¡n. kn\na _mlp_enbà alm_enbmsW¦nepw Rm³ sdUnsb¶ a«n IŨncntbmsS hey½. sIm¨paI³ ]dªp: "hey½ sdUnbmbnt¡m, Imdn SuWnse Xotbädnte¡p t]mImw, _mlp_ensbms¡ hey½bv¡p ]nSn¡ptam?' hey½bpsS apJw Npfnªp: "_m_p_entbm.. AsXm¶pw thWvS, Rm³ sIm«Ibntem«panÃ. F\n¡v B hm«okv B¸n h¶ kn\na \osbm¶p ImWn¨m aXn'.

hey½bpsS adp]Sn tI«Xpw sIm¨paI³ t`Zs¸« coXnbn H¶p sR«n. hey½ ]dbp¶Xp hm«vkv B¸ns\¡pdn¨mWv, kn\na t{]ahpw. Cuizcm, hey½bv¡pw hm«vkv B¸pw hymP\pw aXn!

t{]a¯n\p I®nsömWp Ime§fmbn tI«n«pÅXv. I®pw aq¡psam¶pw Csænepw C¯ncn \mWapWvSmIpsa¶p \m«pImÀ {]Xo£n¨ncp¶p. F¶mÂ, NnecpsS IÅ¡®p Xpd¶tXmsS t{]a¯nsâ \mWw am{Xaà sk³kÀ t_mÀUnsâ am\wIqSn t]mbn. \mW¯n\pw am\¯n\pw C\nsb¦nepw sk³kdnwKv DWvSmIptamsb¶p sshImsX Adnbmw. t{]an¡p¶hcn hymP·mcpsWvS¶Xn t{]an¡m¯hÀ¡p t]mepw XÀ¡anÃ. t{]an¡p¶hcn BImsa¦n t{]a¯nepw C¯ncn hymP\mImsa¶p sk³kÀ t_mÀUnse Nne hncpX³amÀ IcpXnbXns\ Ipäw ]dbm³ ]äptam? Asænepw Cu \m«n hymP³ F¶p tIÄ¡pt¼mÄ ]eÀ¡pw \nÀhymPamb \nÀhrXn tXm¶p¶Xv Hcp \m«p\S¸mbn amdnbn«pWvSv. _nhtdPkn Ipep¡n¡pdn¨pXcp¶ aZyw In«psa¦nepw ]eÀ¡pw Ie¡n¡pg¨p In«p¶ hymPt\mSmWp {]nbw. hymP³ aZyambmepw knUnbmbmepw In¡n\v H«pw IpdhnÃt{X. sXm«Sp¯ Xotbädn kn\na HmSp¶psWvS¶p ]dªmepw hymP³ IWvSmse NneÀ¡p Xr]vXnbmIq. hymPaZyamsW¦n I®Sn¨pt]mIpsas¶¦nepw t]Sn¡Ww, hymPknUnbmsW¦n I®pw t]mInÃ, Icfpw t]mInÃ. XIcm\pÅXp \nÀamXmhnsâ N¦p am{Xw! \nÀamXmhnsâ N¦p XIcp¶Xp IWvSp Xmc¯nsâtbm hnXcW¡mcsâtbm XntbädpImcsâtbm Icfenbp¶nÃ, ]ns¶´n\p ImgvN¡mcsâ am{Xw I®p \ndbWw!


alm\Kcs¯ hnd¸n¨ kvt^mS\]c¼c

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am¯p¡p«n Sn. Iq«pt½Â

h[in£bvs¡Xntc kaÀ¸n¨ lÀPn C´ybpsS ]ctam¶X \oXn]oTamb kp{]ow tImSXnbpw cmjv{S]Xnbpw XÅnbtXmsS apwss_ kvt^mS\t¡knse {]Xn bm¡q_v taa\p Xq¡pIbÀ Dd¸mbncn¡pIbmWv. 1993 cmPys¯ sR«n¨ apwss_ kvt^mS\]c¼cbpsS kq{X[mc³ F¶ \nebnepw AXn\mbn ]Ww {IaoIcn¨Xn\pw B ]Ww sNehgn¨Xn\pamWv Cu NmÀt«Uv A¡uWvSns\Xnsc tIkv h¶Xv. h[in£ C¶p \S¸mIpIbmsW¦n bm¡q_v taa³ P\n¨ ZnhkwXs¶ in£ F¶ {]tXyIXbpapWvSmIpw.

apwss_ kvt^mS\¯nsâ {][m\ Bkq{XIcn Hcmfpw hntZis¯hnsStbm Hfnhn Ignbp¶bmfpamb ssSKÀ taasâ ktlmZc\mWv bm¡q_v taa³. kvt^mS\t¡kn KqVmtemN\ \S¯nbXn\pw AXn\pÅ km¼¯nI klmbw \ÂInbXn\pw bm¡q_v 1994  Pbnegn¡pÅnembn. bm¡q_ns\ 1994 HmKÌv A©n\v ImTvaÞphnÂh¨v AdÌv sNbvXpsh¶mWp tIkt\zjn¨ kn_nsF ]dbp¶Xv. F¶mÂ, taa³ CXp \ntj[n¡p¶p. 1994 Pqsse 28\v Xm³ t\¸mfnÂh¨v t]meokn\p IogS§pIbmbncp¶psh¶mWp taasâ hmZw. Xq¡nteäs¸«m apwss_ kvt^mS\ ]c¼cbpambn _Ôs¸«p Xq¡nteäs¸Sp¶ BZy hyànbmIpw bm¡q_v. tIkn AdÌnemb aäp ]¯p t]cpsS h[in£ tImSXn Poh]cy´am¡nbncp¶p.

apwss_sb \Sp¡nb kvt^mS\w

1993 amÀ¨v 13 C´ybpsS hmWnPy XeØm\amb apwss_bpsS hnhn[ `mK§fn \S¶ 13 hyXykvX t_mw_v kvt^mS\§fn cmPyw sR«n. kvt^mS\§fn 257 t]À acn¨p. 700 tesdt¸À¡p ]cnt¡äp. acn¨hcpsS F®w t\m¡nbm C´ybn \S¶ Gähpw henb `oIcm{IaWambncp¶p apwss_bnse kvt^mS\ ]c¼c.

hyàamb ]²XntbmsS \S¸m¡s¸« `oIcm{IaW§fnsem¶mbncp¶p CXv. C´y³ a®n kvt^mS\¯n\mbn BÀUnFIvkv D]tbmKn¨ BZy B{IaWambncp¶p CXv. Imdnepw kvIq«dnepambncp¶p kvt^mS\¯nepÅ t_mw_v LSn¸n¨ncp¶Xv. t_mws_ tÌm¡v FIvkvtN©v, IÂ_mtZhn, inhtk\ `h³, \cnam³ t]mbnânse FbÀ C´y sI«nSw, amlnanse ap¡phcpsS tImf\n, hÀen sk©zdn _kmÀ, kmthcn _kmÀ, _m{µbnse tlm«Â kotdm¡v F¶nhnS§fnemWp iàntbdnb kvt^mS\w \S¶Xv.

kvt^mS\w \S¶p cWvSp Znhk¯n\pÅn Xs¶ apwss_ t]meokv kvt^mS\ ]c¼cbpsS Npcpfgn¨p. kvt^mS\¯n A[mtemI\mbI³ ZmhqZv C{_mlnsâbpw taa³ IpSpw_¯nsâbpw t\cn«pÅ _Ôw a\knem¡n.

kvt^mS\hpambn _ÔapsWvS¶p sXfnªXns\¯pSÀ¶p t_mfnhpUv \S³ kRvPbv Z¯ns\ Hcp amk¯n\ptijw AdÌv sNbvXp.

KqVmtemN\

apwss_ kvt^mS\ ]c¼cbpsS {][m\ kq{X[mc·mcmb ssSKÀ taa\pw ZmhqZv C{_mlnapw ZmhqZnsâ ktlmZc³ A\okv C{_mlnapw tNÀ¶v AhcpsS ASp¯ hnizkvXsc Zp_mbnbnte¡p hnfn¨phcp¯n. C¡q«¯n bm¡q_v taa\pw DWvSmbncp¶p.

1992 Unkw_dn\pw 1993 P\phcn¡v CSbnepambncp¶p ChcpsS IqSn¡mgvN. Cu kwL¯nsâ _p²nbn Dcp¯ncnªXmbncp¶p apwss_bn kvt^mS\ ]c¼c \S¯pI F¶ Bibw. Atbm[ybnse _m_dn akvPnZv XIÀ¶tijw apwss_bn \S¶ lnµpþapkvenw elfbn sImÃs¸« apkvenwIfpsS {]XnImcambn«mbncp¶p apwss_ kvt^mS\w \S¯m³ ZmhqZpw kwLhpw Xocpam\n¨Xv.

Cu Bibw \S¸m¡m\pÅ ]Ww {IaoIcn¨Xp bm¡q_v taa\mbncp¶p. kvt^mS\¯n\pÅ XbmsdSp¸v \S¯p¶Xn\pw kvt^mS\kma{KnIÄ F¯n¡p¶Xn\pambn taa³ Xsâ _豈 D]tbmKn¨p. ]e `mK¯p\n¶mbn 21.90 e£w cq] F¯n¨psImSp¯p.

kw`hw \S¶v F«p amk¯n\Iw, 1993 \hw_À \men\p t]meokv At\zjWw ]qÀ¯nbm¡n. ]Xn\mbnc¯ntesd t]PpÅ Ipä]{Xw tImSXnbn kaÀ¸n¨p. CXn kvt^mS\]c¼cbn ]¦psWvS¶p IcpXp¶ 189 t]cpsS t]cpIÄ Ipä]{X¯n ]cmaÀin¨ncp¶p. tIknsâ hnNmcWbv¡mbn SmU tImSXn cq]oIcn¨p. 2001 amÀ¨v apX Pqsse hsc 684 km£nIfpsSbpw samgn tcJs¸Sp¯n. t{]mknIyqjsâ hmZw HtÎm_À 2001  ]qÀ¯nbmbn.

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2007 Pqsse 27\p {]tXyI SmU tImSXn bm¡q_v taa\p h[in£ hn[n¨p. CXns\Xnsc taa³ kp{]owtImSXnbn A¸o kaÀ¸n¨p.

F¶mÂ, almcmjv{S kÀ¡mÀ taasâ h[in£ Dd¸m¡p¶Xn\mbn d^d³kv ^b sNbvXp. 2013 amÀ¨v 21\v taasâ h[in£ tImSXn icnh¨p. kvt^mS\¯nsâ apJykq{X[mc³ Asæn t{]cIiàn F¶mWp PUvPnamÀ taas\ hntijn¸n¨Xv.

h[in£ Xocpam\w ]p\x]cntim[n¡Wsa¶mhiys¸«p taa³ kp{]ow tImSXnbn ]p\x]cntim[\m lÀPn kaÀ¸n¨p. 2013 Pqsse 30\v A¶s¯ No^v PÌokv ]n. kZminhw, PÌokv _n.Fkv. Nulm³ AS§nb kp{]owtImSXn s_©v taasâ At]£ XÅn. h[in£bvs¡Xncmb ]p\x]cntim[\m lÀPnbn hmZw tIÄ¡p¶Xn\mbn kp{]owtImSXn ap¼msI dn«v lÀPn \ÂIn. 2014 G{]n 11\v cmjv{S]Xn {]Wm_v apJÀPn taasâ ZbmlÀPn XÅn.

h[in£bvs¡Xncmb ]p\x]cntim[\ lÀPn Xpd¶ tImSXn hmZw tIÄ¡Wsa¶ taasâ lÀPn `cWLS\ _©v ]cntim[n¡p¶Xn\mÂ, PÌokpamcmb sP. tJlÀ, kn. \mK¸³ F¶nhÀ h[in£ \S¸m¡p¶Xp tÌ sNbvXp. 2015 amÀ¨v 24\v Xpd¶ tImSXnbnse hmZw Bcw`n¨p. apXnÀ¶ A`n`mjI³ Pkv]m knwKv taa\p thWvSn lmPcmbn. 2015 G{]n H¼Xn\v ]p\x]cntim[\ lÀPn kp{]owtImSXn XÅn.

]n¶oSp taa³, kp{]owtImSXnbn Xncp¯Â lÀPn \ÂInsb¦nepw Pqsse 21\v AXpw XÅn. Pqsse 30\v h[in£ \S¸m¡Wsa¶ acWhmdWvSv almcmjv{S kÀ¡mÀ ]pd¯nd¡n. CtX¯pSÀ¶v taa³ almcmjv{S KhÀWÀ¡p ZbmlÀPn \ÂIn.

KhÀWÀ¡p \ÂInb ZbmlÀPnbpsS XoÀ¸v hcp¶Xphsc h[in£ \S¸m¡cpXv F¶mhiys¸«v taa³ kp{]owtImSXnbn dn«v lÀPn kaÀ¸n¨p. h[in£ ]pds¸Sphn¨Xp \nbahncp²amsW¶v taa³ Btcm]n¨p.

2015 Pqsse 28\v Xncp¯Â lÀPnbn kp{]owtImSXn ssIs¡mWvS Xocpam\s¯ tNmZyw sNbvXp taa³ ]pXnb dn«v lÀPn kaÀ¸n¨p. s_©nse cWvSp PUvPnamÀ¡pw hnjb¯n hyXykvX A`n{]mbw DWvSmbXns\¯pSÀ¶p tIkv asämcp s_©nsâ ]cnKW\bv¡mbn hn«p. in£ \S¸m¡p¶Xp XSbm³ C¶se kp{]owtImSXn hoWvSpw hnk½Xn¨p. CtX¯pSÀ¶p taa³ almcmjv{S KhÀWÀ kn. hnZymkmKÀ dmhphn\v ZbmlÀPn \ÂIn. At±lhpw AXp XÅn.

bm¡q_v taa³ 1962 Pqsse 30\v apwss_bn P\n¨p. ss_¡pfbnse At´mWntbm Unkqk kvIqfnÂ\n¶p sslkvIqÄ hnZym`ymkw \S¯n. _pÀlm\n tImfPv Hm^v sImtagvkv B³Uv BÀSvknÂ\n¶p sImtagvkn _ncpZm\´c_ncpZw ]qÀ¯nbm¡n. 1990 knF ]qÀ¯nbm¡n. anI¨ NmÀt«Uv A¡uWvSâv Bbn t]scSp¯ taa³ ]n¶oSv Cd¨n DXv]¶§Ä KÄ^v cmPy§fnepw a[y ]qÀthjy³ cmPy§fnepw IbäpaXn sN¿p¶Xn\mbn taa³ tXPvcYv CâÀ\mjW F¶ t]cn IbäpaXn Øm]\w XpS§n.

taa³ IpSpw_¯nse Gähpw A[nIw hnZym`ymkw t\Snb hyànbmWv Xq¡pIbdnte¡p t]mIp¶Xv. NmÀt«Uv A¡uWvSâmb bm¡q_v Pbn hmk¯n\nSbnÂXs¶ Cµncm KmÔn Hm¸¬ bqWnthgvknänbnÂ\n¶p cWvSv amÌÀ _ncpZ§fmWv kz´am¡nbXv.

bm¡q_v taas\ Xq¡pacw Im¯ncn¡pt¼mÄ apwss_ kvt^mS\¯nsâ apJy Bkq{XIsc¶p IcpXp¶ ZmhqZv C{_mlnapw ssSKÀ taa\pw \nba¯nsâ ]nSnbn \n¶v Gsd AI¶v hntZis¯ kpc£nX Xmhf§fnemWv.






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