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h¯n¡m\pw hoªpw {]iv\§Ä!

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BÀ¨v _nj]v amÀ tPmk^v ]ƯnÂ

Hcp s]mXpi{Xphns\ NqWvSn¡m«n AWnIsf Hcpan¨p tNÀ¯p i{Xphns\Xnsc t]mÀapJw Xpd¡m³ kÖcm¡pI F¶Xp ]gb X{´amWv. cmjv{Sob¡mÀ¡v F¡mehpw CXp {]nbXcamWpXm\pw. hÀKkachmZnIÄ¡p i{Xp]£¯p NqjIcmb _qÀjzmIfpWvS.v hÀKobhmZnIÄ¡v CXc aXhn`mK§fpWvSv. apXemfn hÀKs¯ ]mtS D·qe\w sN¿m\mWp hÀKkac¡mcpsS kwLSnXmlzm\w. `mcX¯nse Xo{hhmZnIÄ kz]v\w ImWp¶Xp aX\yq\]£§fnÃm¯ Hcp `mhn `mcXs¯bmWv. D¯tc´ybnse aXXo{hhmZnIfmWv C¯cw Bib§fpsS ]XmImhmlIÀ.

tIcf¯nepw C¯cw hnIeNn´IÄ ]SÀ¯m³ NneÀ I¨sI«nbnd§nbncn¡pIbmsW¶p tXm¶p¶p. sXcsªSp¸ptKmZbn thm«pt\Sn A[nImc¯ntedm³ \yq\]£§sf Bt£]n¡m\pw Häs¸Sp¯m\pw AhÀs¡Xntc lnµp`qcn]£¯nsâ thm«v {[phoIcn¡m\pamWp {iaw. D¯tc´ybn PmXn¡mÀUv Ifn¨mWp NneÀ `cW¯ntednbXv. B ImÀUv Xs¶ Cd¡n ChnsSbpw Ifn¡m³ AhÀ {iaamcw`n¨ncn¡p¶p F¶pthWw IcpXm³.

aXkulmÀZhpw ]ckv]c_lpam\hpw klIcWhpw tIcf¯nsâ alnXamb ]mc¼cyamWv. AXp \in¸n¡m³ Hcp iànsbbpw A\phZn¡m³ ]mSnÃ. hS¡³Xo{hhmZnIÄ sImWvSphcp¶ hnjen]vXamb Bib§sf {]Xntcm[n¨p tXm¸n¡m³ tIcfobÀ¡p IgnbWw.

kapZmbkv]À[ hfÀ¯p¶ am[ya§Ä

Nne am[ya§fpsS (]{X§fpw Nm\epIfpsaÃmw) DSaØmhImiw hn`mKob Nn´ hfÀ¯p¶hcpsS ssIIfnemWv. Cu teJI³ Znhtk\ hmbn¡p¶ Hcp ]{X¯nsâ Hcpt]Pv AhÀ FÃm Znhkhpw aX{KÙ `mK§fpw thZhymJym\§fpw DÄs¸Sp¯m³ amänh¨ncn¡p¶p. ]t£, AXn\Sp¯ t]PpItfm aäp aXhn`mK§Äs¡XnscbpÅ hmÀ¯Ifpw teJ\§fpw {]kn²oIcn¡m³ D]tbmKn¡p¶p. Ncn{Xw kzm`ojvS{]Imcw \nÀan¡p¶ ImeamWnXv. thZIme¯p hnam\§Ä ]d¯nbncps¶¶pw A\y{Klbm{X DWvSmbncps¶¶pw sXfnhpIÄ \nc¯p¶ Imew. AXn Akz`mhnIXsbm¶pw AhÀ ImWp¶nÃ.

]t£, Ipcnipbp²hpw Keoentbm kw`h§fpw aäpw ]cmaÀin¡pt¼mÄ bYmÀY ]Ým¯e¯n \n¶pamän ZpÀhymJym\w sN¿m\pw ss{IkvXhsc AS¨mt£]n¡m\pw AhÀs¡´v DÕmlamWv! ^yqU k{¼Zmbw bqtdm¸nse ss{IkvXh krjvSnbmbncp¶psh¶v CubnsS Hcp ]{X¯n hmbn¨p. ChnSs¯ P·nk{¼Zmbhpw NmXpÀhÀWyhpw PmXnhyhØnXnbpw ss{IkvXhkrjvSnbmsW¶v Chsc¶p ]dªpXpS§psa¶p \nÝbanÃ.

Ncn{Xkw`h§fnte¡p Xncnªpt\m¡n ]ckv]cw ]gnNmcp¶Xn kmwKXyanÃ. GXp kaql¯nepw hgnsXän \S¶hÀ DWvSmbncn¡mw. AhcpsS A]Nb§sf HmÀs¯Sp¯v AXnsâ t]cn kaqls¯ apgph³ Bt£]n¡p¶Xn AÀYanÃ. aäpÅ kaql§sf C§s\ Bt£]n¡m³ I¨sI«nbnd§pt¼mÄ, B kaqlw sNbvXn«pÅ ImemXoXamb \·Isf \mw AhKWn¡pIbmWv. am{XaÃ, ]gbImes¯ hogvNIÄ¡v C¶pÅhÀ F§s\ D¯chmZnIfmIpw? C¶p \½psS kaql¯nepÅ hogvNIsf HmÀ¯mWp \mw ]ngsNmtÃWvSXv.

C¶s¯ A{Ia§Ä¡pw A\oXn¡pw AgnaXn¡pw C¶pÅhcmWv D¯chmZnIÄ. FÃm hn`mK¯nepws]« BfpIÄ Cu Hgp¡nÂs¸Sp¶pWvS.v AXn\v Hcp aXkaqls¯ am{Xw Ipäs¸Sp¯m\mhnÃXm\pw. Xncp¯epIÄ DWvSmhm³ FÃmhcpw tNÀ¶p ]cn{ian¡pIbmWp thWvSXv. AXp ad¶p am[ya§fpw aäpw hn`mKobXbv¡p Ifsamcp¡p¶Xpw B¡w Iq«p¶Xpw Xo¡fnbmWv.

kwL]cnhmdnse Hcp {]hÀ¯I³ CubnsS Xsâ teJ\w Ahkm\n¸n¨Xv C§s\: "A\ykaql§sf¸än ASnØm\clnXamb `oXn kz´w kapZmb¯nepWvSm¡p¶Xv BÀ¡pw KpWwsN¿nÃ. kwL]cnhmÀt]msebpÅ kwLS\IÄ kz´w Bß]cntim[\bv¡v CXv D]tbmKn¡Ww. \yq\]£§fpsS P\kwJymhÀ[\, aX]cnhÀ¯\{iaw Fs¶ms¡ \nc´cw ]dªp kz´w aXkaql¯nÂs¸«hsc `bs¸Sp¯pIbpw aäpÅhsc `ojWns¸Sp¯pIbpw sN¿p¶Xv BÀ¡pw KpWw sN¿nÃ, \nÝbw.'

h¯n¡m³ F¶ {]tXyI \Kccmjv{Sw

GIaXm[njvTnXcmjv{S§Ä C¶v A{]kàamW,v A]ISIchpamWv F¶p kotdmae_mÀ k`m[y£³ amÀ tPmÀPv Bet©cnbpsS Hcp teJ\¯n NqWvSn¡mWn¨ncp¶p. AXn\p adp]Snbmbn NneÀ {]XnIcn¨Xp sXän²mcWIfpsS ASnØm\¯nemsW¶p ]dbmXncn¡m³ h¿. h¯n¡m³ Hcp aXcmjv{SatÃ, AXp ad¨psImWvStà At±lw FgpXnbXv F¶mbncp¶p {][m\ hnaÀi\w. CXp ]pXnb Btcm]WaÃ. K±m^nbpw aäpw ]WvSpXs¶ ]dªpt\m¡nbXmWv. Ignª \qämWvSnsâ Ahkm\L«¯n Hcp F³PnH {Kq¸v CXp kqNn¸n¨v sFIycmjv{Sk`bnse h¯n¡msâ km¶n[ys¯ FXnÀ¯ncp¶p.

HcpImcyw BZyta a\knem¡Ww; h¯n¡m³ bpF³ AwKaÃ. ImcWw h¯n¡m³ Hcp km[mcW cmjv{SaÃ. h¯n¡m³ CXphsc AwKXz¯n\mhiys¸«n«panÃ. bpF³ AwK cmjv{S¯nsâ NpaXeIsfÃmw \ndthäm³ h¯n¡m\p km[n¡m¯XmWv CXn\p apJyImcWw. Nne kµÀ`§fn bpF¶n\p _ew{]tbmKnt¡WvSnh¶m AXn ]¦ptNcm³ h¯n¡m\p km[n¡nÃ. kam[m\]me\¯n\pw aäpw bpF³ tk\Isf Abbv¡mdpWvStÃm. A§s\bpÅ kwcw`§fn ]¦ptNcm\pw h¯n¡m\p ]änÃ. bpF¶nse Ønc\nco£I³ am{XamWp h¯n¡m³.

AtXkabw h¯n¡m³ hnizhnimeamb Hcp k`mkaql¯nsâ tI{µamWv. At\Iw cmPy§fn AXn\p \nÀWmbIamb kzm[o\hpapWvSv. ASp¯Ime¯v Atacn¡bv¡pw Iyq_bv¡panSbn \ne\n¶ ]ncnapdp¡¯n\p Abhphcp¯m³ {^m³knkv amÀ]m¸bpsS CSs]S {InbmßIambncp¶p. C{ktbensâbpw ]ekvXosâbpw {]knUâpamsc {]mÀY\bn Hcpan¸n¨p {^m³knkv amÀ]m¸ \S¯nb kam[m\{ia§Ä temI{i² BIÀjn¨p. h¯n¡m³ F¶pw kam[m\¯nsâ ZqXmWp hln¡p¶Xv. AXp temIkam[m\¯n\m{Kln¡p¶ cmjv{S§Ä BZcthmsS kzoIcn¡mdpapWvSv. AXpsImWvSp bpF¶nse NÀ¨Ifn ]s¦Sp¡m\pw Bib§Ä D¶bn¡m\pw h¯n¡m³ {]Xn\n[n¡p Ignbp¶p.

ASnØm\]cambn h¯n¡m³ k`mtI{µamWv. ]t£ k`mtI{µw ØnXnsN¿p¶ {]tZi¯v k`m[y£\p ]cam[nImcapWvSv. asämcp cmjv{S¯n\pw AXp A[o\aÃ. 1929 s^{_phcnbn Cämenb³ Kh¬saâpambn DWvSmbncp¶ XÀ¡§sfÃmw Ahkm\n¸n¨p cWvSv DS¼SnIfn (Lateran Pacts)CcpIq«cpw H¸ph¨XneqsSbmWv Hcp kzX{´\Kcsa¶ \nebn {]hÀ¯n¡m\pÅ AhImiw h¯n¡m\p e`n¨Xv ...the full ownership, exclusive and absolute dominion and Soverign jurisdiction of the Holy See over the Vatican CityCämenb³ Kh¬saâv AwKoIcn¡p¶psh¶mWv DS¼SnbpsS BZy`mK¯pXs¶ ]dbp¶Xv. cmjv{Ssa¶ \nebn h¯n¡m³ Hcp \Kccmjv{Sw (City State) am{XamWv. AXv Hcp neutral inviolable territoryBsW¶mWv DS¼SnbpsS 24þmw hIp¸v ]dbp¶Xv.

C´ysbt¸mse Hcp hnime cmPysam¶paà h¯n¡m³. k`mtI{µ¯nsâ kpKaamb \S¯n¸n\mhiyapÅ Øeta h¯n¡msâ A[o\XbnepÅq. h¯n¡m³ \Kccmjv{S¯nsâ hnkvXrXn 0.44 NXpc{i IntemaoäÀ (GXmWvSv 44 slIvSÀ) am{XamWv. hmkvXh¯n k`mtI{µ¯nsâ FÃm Un¸mÀ«psaâpIÄ¡pt]mepw h¯n¡m\n CSanÃ. ]e hIp¸pIfpw tdmansâ aäp ]e `mK§fnemWp {]hÀ¯n¡p¶Xv. GXmWvSv 800 t]À¡pam{Xta AhnsS hmkØeapÅq. AXn 450 t]À¡mWp \Kc¯nse ]ucmhImiapÅXv(AXn \sÃmcp iXam\w \bX{´{]Xn\n[nIfmWv).

temI¯v C§s\ asämcp cmPyanÃ. AXpsImWvSv ChnsS aäp aXØcnsöpw aXm[njvTnX cmjv{SamsW¶pw ]dªp tZmjmtcm]Ww \S¯p¶Xn HcÀYhpanÃ.

s]s«s¶mcp hoªp hnhmZw

ASp¯Ime¯p hÀKobhmZnIÄ DbÀ¯ns¡mWvSphcm³ {ian¨ asämcp Imcyw ss{IkvXhÀ _enbÀ¸W¯nsâ `mKambn D]tbmKn¡p¶ hoªnsâ DXv]mZ\ambncp¶p. FdWmIpfw AXncq]Xbn hmÀjnI hoªpev]mZ\w 1250 enädn \n¶v 5000 enäÀ B¡n DbÀ¯m\pÅ A\phmZ¯n\v FIvsskkv Un¸mÀ«psaânt\mSv Bhiys¸«p F¶Xp henb hmÀ¯bmbn Nne ]{X§Ä {]kn²oIcn¨p. DZmlcWambn, tabv 20þse C´y³ FIvkv{]kv ]{Xw Cu hmÀ¯bv¡psImSp¯ Xes¡«v ]cnlmkcqt]WbpÅXmbncp¶p: In good Faith and Spirit. aZy]m\w hÀ[n¸n¡m³ Ft´m IpÕnX{iaw \S¡p¶p F¶a«nemWp ]{X§fpw Nm\epIfpw CXns\ kao]n¨Xv.

]cnip² _en¡mhiyamb hoªv Xbmdm¡m³ A\phmZapÅXp ]gb cq]XmtI{µ§fn am{XamWv. AXn\p km[mcW DW¡ap´ncnbmWv D]tbmKn¡p¶Xv. A§s\bpWvSm¡p¶ hoªn\p elcnbpambn Hcp _Ôhpansöp ]dbmw. hmkvXh¯n ap´ncn¨mdp am{XamWXv. ]t£, AXp hoªnsâ KW¯n DÄs¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶XpsImWvSv FIvsskkv Un¸mÀ«psaân \n¶p ssek³kv hm§pI ]XnhmWv.

Znhtk\sbt¶mWw P\kwJy hÀ[n¨phcp¶ sIm¨n tI{µam¡nbpÅ AXncq]Xbn GXmWvSv 25 hÀj¯n\ptijw C§s\sbmcp BhiyapWvSmbXn hmÀ¯bm¡m³ am{Xw F´mWpÅsX¶p a\knemIp¶nÃ. kotdmae_mÀ k`bn Znhtk\ ]cnip² IpÀ_m\ AÀ¸n¡p¶pWvSv F¶Xp dnt¸mÀ«ÀamÀ Adnªncnt¡WvSXmbncp¶p. GXmbmepw cWvSpZnhkw sImWvSv B hmÀ¯ sI«S§n. dnt¸mÀ«ÀamÀ¡v Aafn a\knembn¡mWpw!

apfbnte \pÅn¡fbWw

{]tIm]\apWvSm¡p¶ C¯cw dnt¸mÀ«pIfpw teJ\§fpw Xbmdm¡p¶hÀ kapZmb kulmÀZ¯n\pw aXklnjvWpXbv¡pamWp lm\nhcp¯p¶Xv. tIcf¯nse aXhnizmknIÄ kmtlmZcy¯n apt¶dm\mWv B{Kln¡p¶Xv. Gsd¡mew ChnsS \ne\n¶ Cu kmtlmZcyw inYneam¡m³ Ffp¸ambncn¡mw. ]t£ AXp ]p\ÀkrjvSn¡m³ {]bmkamIpw. am[ya{]hÀ¯IcmWv C¡mcyw Ft¸mgpw {i²bnÂhbvt¡WvSXv. hnShpIfpWvSm¡m³ ImcWamIp¶ hymJym\§Ä \ÂIn hnhn[ aXØsc AIäm\à am[ya§Ä {iant¡WvSXv. hmÀ¯IÄ \ÂIm³thWvSn F´pw sN¿msa¶p IcpXp¶Xv hnthIaÃ.

tIcf¯n thtcm«anÃm¯ hÀKobhmZnIÄ ChnsS A[nImcapd¸n¡m³ Xo{h{iaw \S¯m³ {ian¡p¶ AhkcamWnXv. \yq\]£¯ns\Xncmbn Btcm]W§Ä D¶bn¡pIbpw Ahsc A[nt£]n¡pIbpw sNbvXm `qcn]£ thm«v GIoIcn¡msa¶ B X{´¯n\v am[ya§Ä Icp¡fmIpIbmWv. s]mXpP\§fpw C¯cw \o¡§fpsS ]ndInepÅ Zpcpt±iyw a\knem¡n {]XnIcn¡m³ XbmdmhpIbmWv C¶v Bhiyambncn¡p¶Xv. ChnsS hnjhn¯pIÄ Fdnbp¶hsc IsWvS¯m\pw Xncn¨dnbm\pw amän\nÀ¯m\pw \ap¡p km[n¡Ww.


hcm\ncn¡p¶Xv Bi¦bpsS Imew

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XmfwsXänb Rmäpthe þ5 / sdPn tPmk^v

ImemhØmamä§Ä Gähpw {]XnIqeambn _m[n¡p¶Xp a®n PohnXw AÀ¸n¨ncn¡p¶ IÀjIscbmWv. ]c¼cmKX Irjn XInSwadnbp¶ kmlNcy¯n IÀjIÀ Irjn Dt]£n¡m³ \nÀ_ÔnX\mhpItbm ISs¡Wnbn IqSp§pItbm sN¿pw. ImemhØbpambpÅ NqXpIfnbmbn amdnbncn¡p¶p \½psS \m«nse Irjn.

Gjybn C´y, ssN\, ]m¡nØm³, _w¥mtZiv, {ioe¦, ameZzo]v F¶o cmPy§sfbmbncn¡pw ImemhØm hyXnbm\w Gähpw {]XnIqeambn _m[n¡pIsb¶p ImÀjnI kÀhIemime ImemhØm hn`mKw ta[mhn tUm. {]kmZdmhp A`n{]mbs¸«p. C´ybnepw ssN\bnepw tKmX¼nsâ DXv]mZ\w `mhnbn Ipdbpw. tKmX¼v Irjn¡v Gähpw A\ptbmPyamb knÔpþ KwKm kaXe§fn tKmX¼v DXv]mZ\¯n kmcambn CSnhpWvSmIpw. a®nse Xm]\nebnepWvSmIp¶ hyXnbm\w Ing§v hnfIsfbpw kmcambn _m[n¡pw. s\Ãv, tNmfw, ]bÀ hÀK§Ä XpS§nb [m\y§fpsS DXv]mZ\hpw CSnbpw. hne¡bäw, Zmcn{Zyw, t]mjImlmc¡pdhv, IS_m[yX, tcmK§Ä XpS§n hnhn[§fmb {]XymLmX§fmWv Bk¶`mhnbn hcm\ncn¡p¶Xv. ap³ hÀj§fnepWvSmIm¯ XWp¸pw AXn\ptijw h³NqSpw hSt¡ C´ybnepWvSmbncn¡p¶Xv C¯cw amä§fpw hyàamb ASbmf§fmWv. ImemhØm hyXnbm\w {]IrXnZpc´§Ä¡v {][m\ ImcWamWv.

I\¯ agbpw ISp¯ NqSpw ImcWw Xm]\nebnepWvSmIp¶ hyXnbm\w d_dnsâ DXv]mZ\¯n 10 iXam\t¯mfw kao]hÀj§fn IpdhpWvSm¡nbXmbn d_À KthjWtI{µw UbdÎÀ tUm. sPbnwkv tP¡_v ]dªp. ]pXnb IoS§fpw ^wKkpw d_ÀtaJebn DWvSmIm³ CSbm¡n. ImemhØmamäw d_À ac§fpsS hfÀ¨ XSks¸Sp¯p¶Xmbpw ac§fpsS DXv]mZ\£aX Ipdbv¡p¶Xmbpw KthjWtI{µw IsWvS¯nbn«pWvSv.

]I a®n ]Xn¡p¶ NqSv apgph³ cm{Xnbn ]pdt¯¡p t]mbmte Xm]\nebn k´penXmhØ DWvSmhq. F¶mÂ, CXn\nt¸mÄ XSk§Ä ]eXmWv. hml\§fn \n¶pÅ ImÀ_¬ tamtWmIv sskUv t]mepÅ lcnXKrl hmXI§fpsS s]cp¸w, tIm¬{Ioäv sI«nS§fpsS hÀ[\, h\\ioIcWw F¶nhsbms¡ CXn\p ImcW§fmWv. IpgÂtcmKw t]mepÅ ]pXnb tcmK§Ä s\¸mS§fn hym]IamsW¶p Ip«\mSv hnIk\ kanXn UbdÎÀ ^m. tXmakv ]oenbm\n¡Â A`n{]mbs¸«p. sNdnb Nph¶ ]pgphnsâ B{IaWw Irjnsb \in¸n¡p¶p. Cfw]¨ \ndw h¶p s\Âs¨Sn Nmc\ndambn \in¡p¶p. IXnÀ ]Xncmbn amdpIbpw sN¿p¶p.

ImemhØbnse sNdnb amä§Ät]mepw ]cnØnXnbpw Irjnbnepw henb {]XymLmX§Ä¡v ImcWamIp¶Xmbn ]o¨n h\wKthjW tI{µ¯nse tUm.Sn.hn. jmPn A`n{]mbs¸«p. tIcf¯nse FÃm PnÃIfnepw ImemhØmamäw t\cnb tXmXnse¦nepw {]ISamWv.

]eXc¯nepÅ ]£nIfpw InfnIfpw ie`§fpw hbepIfnÂ\n¶p adbp¶p. A]ISImcnbmb IoS§fpw PohnIfpw ]pXpXmbn IS¶phcnIbpw sN¿p¶p. hS¡³ PnÃIfnepw ssltd©nepw sX§pw Ihp§pw IpcpapfIpw ]ehn[w tcmK§Ä aqew \in¨psImWvSncn¡p¶p.

IpcpapfIv Irjnsb {ZpXhm«hpw hÅnNobepw NXn¨p. adpacp¶pIÄ ^en¡p¶nÃ. Xpcnipw IpanÄ\min\nbpw {]tbmKn¨n«pw t\«anÃ. Hcp IoSs¯ AaÀ¨ sN¿pt¼mÄ asämcp IoSw IS¶phcp¶p. Hmtcm hÀjhpw AXnamcIamb IoS\min\n {]tbmKnt¡WvS ØnXnbmWp IÀjIcptSXv. IoS\min\nbnÃmsX Irjn apt¶m«pt]mInsö AhØbmWv FÃm IrjnbnepapÅXv. I¸, Im¸n, tXbne XpS§nbhbv¡v C{Xtbsd tcmK§Ä IWvSphcp¶Xv ASp¯Ime¯mWv. almfn tcmKhpw aWvSNobepw _m[n¨p Ihp§pIfpw IcnªpW§n. IpanÄtcmKw Im¸nsb XIÀ¯p. aÞcnbpw aWvSNobepw sX§ns\ \new]cnim¡n.

aªfn¸ptcmKhpw _m[n¡p¶pWvSv. tXbnes¡mXpIpw XWvSpXpc¸\pw ]pÅn¡p¯ptcmKhpw sNÅptcmKhpw hÀ[n¨tXmsS IipamhpIrjnbpw {]XnkÔnbnembncn¡p¶p.

ImÀjntImXv]mZ\w, arKkwc£Ww, aÕyw hfÀ¯Â, a®v, Pew, kmap{ZnI ssPhaÞew, h\w, ssPhsshhn[yw XpS§n Irjnbpambn _Ôs¸« FÃm taJeIsfbpw ImemhØm hyXnbm\w tZmjIcambn _m[n¡p¶p. lcnXKrl hmXI§Ä h³tXmXn A´co£¯n Ipanªp IqSp¶XmWv BtKmfXm]\¯nsâbpw ImemhØm hyXnbm\¯nsâbpw {][m\ ImcWw. s]t{SmÄ, UokÂ, I¡cn, {]IrXnhmXIw XpS§nb t^mkn CÔ\§Ä I¯n¡p¶XneqsSbpw h³tXmXnepÅ hyhkmbh¡cWw, h\\ioIcWw, B[p\nI DuÀPþ cmknI IrjncoXnIÄ F¶nhbneqsSbpw lcnXKrl hmXI§Ä h³tXmXn A´co£¯nte¡p ]pdwXÅs¸Sp¶p.

sImSp¦mäv, t]amcn, hcĨ, shÅs¸m¡w XpS§nb {]IrXnt£m`§Ä BtcmKycwK¯p \nch[n {]iv\§fpWvSm¡p¶p. shŸm¨nen \ZnIfpw tXmSpIfpw IcIhnsªmgpIn aen\Pew IpSnshÅw e`n¡p¶ Ipf¯nte¡pw InWänte¡pw Ibdn PeP\ytcmK§Ä¡nSbm¡p¶p. {]fbIme¯v OÀZn AXnkmctcmK§Ä, ssSt^mbnUv, aª¸n¯w, ]IÀ¨¸\n, tImfd XpS§nbtcmK§Ä hym]IamIp¶Xv ]XnhmWv.

ssPh A[n\nthi¯nsâ {]XymLmX§Ä

ssPhA[n\nthiw ImemhØmhyXnbm\¯nsâ {]XymLmX§fnsem¶mWv. \½psS ]cnØnXn¡v BLmXambn amdnb Ht«sd PohnIfpw kky§fpw AXnthKw ]SÀ¶v Xt±iob {]IrXnsb \in¸n¡p¶Xp ]Xnhmbncn¡p¶p. ImbÂtaJebn Irjn¡pw ssPhsshhn[y¯n\pw ISp¯ `ojWnbmbncn¡p¶p B{^n¡³ ]mbÂ. shůnse t]mjImwiw tNmÀ¯pI am{Xaà Ptem]cnXe¯n Xn§n hfcp¶Xn\m kqcy{]Imiw XSªv shůnepÅ kkybn\§Ä¡pw aÕy§Ä¡pw kq£vaPohnIÄ¡pw `ojWnbmbncn¡p¶p Cu kkyw.

tIcf¯n ip²Pe aÕyk¼¯n\v Gähpa[nIw ]cnt¡Â¸n¨ Hcp PohnbmWp Xntem¸nb. \½psS \mS³ aÕybn\§Ä ]eXpw Xntem¸nb aqew hwi\miw t\cn«phcnIbmWv. shůn hfsc thKw B[n]Xyapd¸n¡p¶ Cu aÕyw, I®nÂImWp¶Xv F´pw Xn¶pXoÀ¡pIbpw aäp aÕy§Ä¡v Chbv¡nSbn ]nSn¨p\n¡m³ ]ämsX hcnIbpw sN¿p¶p. bpF¶n\p IognepÅ `£y ImÀjnI kwLS\ Xntem¸nbsb ssPhaen\Imcnbmbn {]Jym]n¨n«pWvSv.

NXp¸pIÄ hän¡m\pw hndIn\pw Xcnip`qanbn h\hXvIcWw \S¯m\psams¡ klmbn¡p¶ hr£w F¶ \nebn \½psS \m«nepw F¯nbXmWv At¡jy. \msS§pw \«phfÀ¯nb At¡jy C¶p tIcf¯n h\taJeIÄ¡pw PohnhÀK§Ä¡pw ]pÃn\§Ä¡pw ISp¯ `ojWnbmbncn¡p¶p. sshhn[yamÀ¶ ImemhØIfn hfcm³ tijnbpÅ At¡jybn\§Ä, a®nÂ\n¶v h³tXmXn Pemwiw hens¨Sp¡p¶p. AXn\m At¡jy tXm«§Ä Pe£ma¯n\pw ImcWamIp¶p. At¡jy ]q¡pt¼mÄ hmbphn s]mSn IeÀ¶p ]cnkchmknIÄ¡v AeÀPnbpw izmktImitcmK§fpw DWvSmIp¶Xpw ]XnhmWv.

hnfIÄ¡pw Irjn¡pw kkysshhn[y¯n\pw ISp¯ \miw hnXbv¡p¶ A[n\nthiPohnbmWv B{^n¡³ `oa³ H¨v. H¨v s]cpIp¶Xp ]cnØnXn, BtcmKy, ipNnXz {]iv\ambn amdp¶pWvSv. IrjnbnS§fnepw Xoc{]tZi§fnepw kzm`mhnIh\§fnepw Ir{Xnah\§fnepw \Kc{]tZi§fnepw NXp¸pIfnepsaÃmw H¨pIÄ thKw s]cpIp¶p.

Nn¡p³ Kp\nb, aª¸\n, shÌvss\ sshdkv, U¦n¸\n XpS§n Ht«sd amcItcmK§Ä¡p ImcWamb sshdkpIÄ ]c¯p¶ ssSKÀ sImXpIv ISp¯ shÃphnfn krãn¡p¶ A[n\nthi PohnhÀKamWv. tIcfhpw Cu sImXpIv ]c¯p¶ tcmK§fpsS `ojWnbnemWv.

tIcfwt]mse \mfntIc Irjn¡p {][m\yapÅ \mSnsâ \s«sÃmSn¡m³ t]m¶ H¶mWp aÞcn_m[. sIm{]bn ap¸Xv iXam\¯nsâ Ipdhv aÞcn_m[ aqew DWvSmIp¶p F¶mWp \nehnse IW¡v. ImÀjnI tIcf¯nsâ ASn¯d XIÀ¯ IoSambncp¶ aÞcn.

]mÀ¯o\nbw hnjs¨Sn ASp¯ Ime¯mbn CSp¡nbn DÄs¸sS IrjnbnS§fn h³`ojWnbmbncn¡p¶p. IrjnbnS§fnÂ\n¶p apät¯¡pw ]pdt¼m¡pIfnte¡pw CXp hfÀ¶p]ScpIbmWv. aÕytaJebn `ojWnbmbn amdp¶ asämcp A[n\nthi C\amWv B{^n¡³ apjn. Ir{Xna aÕyIrjn¡pthWvSn temIw apgph³ F¯nb Cu aÕyw A[n\nthi aÕyw F¶ \nebv¡v Ct¸mÄ ]ebnS¯pw h³{]iv\§fmWp krãn¡p¶Xv. shůnse sNdpPohnIsfbà amwk Ahinã§Ä Xn¶mWv Ch AXnthKw Xq¡w hbv¡p¶Xv.

tIcf¯nepw `ojWn krãn¡p¶ asämcp kkyamWp ]mWvSns¯m«mhmSn. hfscthKw s]cpIn aäp kky§Ä¡p hfcm³ Ignbm¯ kmlNcysamcp¡p¶ IfbmWv cWvSp aoäÀ hsc s]m¡¯n hfcp¶ Cu kkyw.

tXbneIrjn¡v C¶v Gähpw `ojWn krãn¡p¶ IfIfn H¶mbn amdnbncn¡p¶p [rXcmjv{S ]¨ F¶ kkyw CSp¡n, hb\mSv PnÃIfn Cu If \o¡w sN¿p¶Xv henb A[zm\ambn amdnbn«pWvSv.

Pemib§fnepw \oÀ{]tZi§fnepw ImWs¸Sp¶ Gähpw {]iv\Imcnbmb A[n\nthi kky§fnsem¶mWp Ipfhmg. Ae¦mckkyambn hfÀ¯m³ a\pjy³ Xs¶ an¡bnS¯pw F¯n¨XmWv Cu kkys¯. cWvSmgvNbv¡pÅn Cc«n {]tZi¯p hym]n¡m³ tijnbpÅ Ipfhmg, \oscmgp¡v XSbpIbpw t_m«v kÀhokpIÄ XSks¸Sp¯pIbpw sN¿p¶p.

Kmw_qknb F¶ aÕys¯ sImXpIv \ioIcW¯n\mbn temI¯nsâ hnhn[`mK§fn F¯n¨XmWv. \nehn \mS³ aÕy§Ä¡pw PePohnIÄ¡pw ISp¯ `ojWn krãn¡p¶p.

sImXpIpIfpsS ap« am{XaÃ, \mS³ aÕybn\§fpsSbpw ap« Xn¶p\in¸n¡p¶ Kmw_qknb hnhn[ C\w aÕy§fpsS \ne\n¸n\p shÃphnfnbmWv.

(XpScpw)


]q«phogpsa¶ `oXnbn 3,531 kvIqfpIÄ

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s]mXp hnZym`ymkw acW¡nS¡bnÂþ1 / _nPp Ipcy³

1957 tIcf \nbak` ]mkm¡nb hnZym`ymk \nbaamWv C¶pw kwØm\¯p {]m_ey¯nepÅXv. tI{µkÀ¡mÀ hnZym`ymk AhImi \nbaw AwKoIcn¨p \ÂInbtXmsS kuP\y hnZym`ymkw Dd¸mt¡WvS s]mXphnZym`ymk Øm]\§Ä kwc£n¡s¸tSWvSXpXs¶bmsW¶ L«wh¶p. kwØm\¯v 4492 kvIqfpIÄ kÀ¡mÀ taJebnepw 7282 F®w kzImcy FbvUUv taJebnepw 860 Hmfw AwKoIrX A¬FbvUUv hn`mK¯nepamWv. C¯hW 308 A¬FbvUUv hnZymeb§Ä¡p IqSn AwKoImcw \ÂInbtXmsS ChbpsS F®¯n hÀ[\bpWvSmIpw.

kwØm\ kne_kv ]n´pScp¶ kvIqfpIfpsS F®w am{Xta kÀ¡mcnsâ HutZymKnI IW¡pIfn DÄs¸Sp¶pÅq. tI{µ kÀ¡mÀ AwKoIcn¨n«pÅ kne_tkmSpIqSn kwØm\¯p {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ A¬FbvUUv kvIqfpIÄ IW¡pIfn DÄs¸Sp¶nÃ. Ignª Ipsd hÀj§fmbn kÀ¡mÀ, FbvUUv taJebn kvIqfpIfpsS F®w hÀ[n¡p¶nÃ. F¶mÂ, A¬FbvUUv taJebn [mcmfw DWvSmIp¶pWvSv. C¯c¯n kam´c hnZym`ymk kuIcy§Ä IqSn h¶tXmsS s]mXphnZym`ymk taJebnte¡p Ip«nIfpsS hchv Ipdªphcp¶ Ncn{XamWp cWvSp ]XnämWvSntesdbmbn tIcf¯nepÅXv. \ã¡W¡pIÄ FSp¯n«p ]´mSpt¼mgpw s]mXphnZym`ymk¯nsâ ta· \Sn¡p¶ kwØm\¯n\v ChnsS ]Tn¡p¶hscbpw ]WnsbSp¡p¶hscbpw AhKWn¡m\mInÃ.

A\mZmbIcamb kvIqfpIÄ

Bhiy¯n\p Ip«nIfnÃm¯ kvIqfpIÄ¡v A\mZmbIcw F¶ t]cp hoWXv 1992emWv. F¶m A¬ C¡tWmanIv (A\mZmbIcw) F¶ Hcp ]Zw tIcf hnZym`ymk N«§fnsem¶pw CtXhsc DÄs¸Sp¯nbn«nÃ. 1992 Pqsse 27se kÀ¡mÀ D¯chn (Pn.H. (BÀSn) \¼À 2708/92 s]mXphnZym`ymk hIp¸v) D¯chnemWv BZyambn A\mZmbIc kvIqÄ F¶ ]Z¯n\v \nÀhN\w \ÂInbncn¡p¶Xv. sICBdn Htcm ¢mknepw icmicn 30 Ip«nIÄ DWvSmbncn¡Wsa¶ hyhØbpWvSv. F¶mÂ, Kkäv hnÚm]\¯neqsS Cu F®w 25 Dw ]n¶oSv 15 Dw Bbn Ipd¨p\ÂInbn«pWvSv.

Ip«nIÄ Ipdhmb kvIqfpIsf A\mZmbIcw F¶ t]cp Npa¯nb Imew apX ChbpsS F®¯n hÀ[\bmWpWvSmbXv. Cu ]«nIbnÂhcp¶ Nne kvIqfpIÄ¡v 2001 XmgphoW Ncn{XhpapWvSv. Hcp \qämWvSnsâ hnZym`ymk Ncn{XapÅ ]e hnZymeb§fpw Ip«nIfpsS Ipdhn A¶v AS¨p]q«n. FbvUUv, kÀ¡mÀ hnZymeb§Ä C¯c¯n AS¨p]q«n. ]n¶nSnt§m«v Kh¬saâv Xocpam\¯n kvIqfpIÄ AS¨p]q«nbnÃ. F¶mÂ, Hcp Ip«n t]mepanÃmsX Hmtcm A[yb\hÀj¯nepw kzbw AWbp¶ hnZymeb§Ä ]Xnhp ImgvNbmWv. s]mXphnZym`ymk taJebn \n¶p kÀ¡mÀ ]n´ncnbp¶Xnsâ `mKambmWv Ip«nIÄ kvIqfpIfn Ipdªph¶Xv.

BZyImeL«¯n Hcp ¢mkn 25 Ip«n t]mepanÃm¯ kvIqfpIsfbmWv A\mZmbIcambn IW¡m¡nh¶Xv. AXmbXv H¶p apX \mephsc ¢mkpIfnembn 100 Ip«nIÄ CÃm¯ kvIqÄ A\mZmbIcambn. C¯c¯n Ignª A[yb\hÀjs¯ IW¡v tIcf \nbak`bpsS lÀPnIÄ kw_Ôn¨ kanXn¡p hnZym`ymkhIp¸v lmPcm¡nbt¸mÄ kwØm\¯v 5252 kvIqfpIÄ A\mZmbIcamWv.

tI{µ hnZym`ymk AhImi \nba{]Imcw Hcp IntemaoäÀ Zqc]cn[n¡pÅn H¶p apX A©phsc ¢mkpIfnte¡pw aq¶p IntemaoäÀ Npäfhn Bdp apX F«phsc ¢mkpIfnte¡pw ]T\kuIcyw Hcp¡Wsa¶ hyhØbpWvSv. tIcf¯n C¯c¯n kuP\y {]mYanI hnZym`ymkw \ÂIm³ Ignbp¶ Øm]\§Ä \ne\nÀt¯WvSXv \nba]camb BhiyhpamWv. F¶mÂ, C¯c¯n kvIqfpIÄ \ne\nÀ¯p¶Xv km¼¯nI _m[yX DWvSm¡p¶psh¶XmWp [\hIp¸nsâ ]£w. kÀ¡mÀ, FbvUUv taJebn hnZym`ymk kuIcyw Hcp¡m³ thWvSn {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ kvIqfpIfne[nIhpw A\mZmbIcamb ]«nIbnepambn. C¯cw kvIqfpIfn 1996 apX XkvXnI \nÀWbw ]cnanXs¸Sp¯n. 2006 Bbt¸mtg¡pw \nba\w ]qÀWambn XSªp. kvIqfpIfn A[yb\w apS§mXncn¡m³ thWvSn FbvUUv amt\PÀamÀ \nba\w \S¯nbhcmIs« i¼fw In«msX Hcp ]XnämWvSmbn ]WnsbSp¡p¶p. ss{]adn kvIqfpIfmWv BZyL«¯n C¯c¯n \ne\nev]v `ojWn t\cn«sX¦n C¶nt¸mÄ sslkvIqfpIÄhsc `ojWnbnemWv.

Ignª A[yb\hÀjs¯ IW¡n Hcp ¢mkn 25 F¶ IW¡n aXnbmb Ip«nIfnÃmsX kwØm\s¯ 2427 hnZymeb§Ä kÀ¡mÀ taJebnepw 2825 hnZymeb§Ä FbvUUv taJebnepw A\mZmbIcambhbpsS ]«nIbnemWv. C¯cw kvIqfpIfn Kh¬saâv taJebn 1,36,630 Ip«nIfpw FbvUUv kvIqfpIfn 1,57,066 Ip«nIfpw ]Tn¡p¶pWvSv. Kh¬saâv taJebn A\mZmbIcamb kvIqfpIfn 16,221 A[ym]Icpw FbvUUv taJebn 15,760 A[ym]Icpw tPmensbSp¡p¶p.

A\mZmbIcamb kvIqfpIfpsS F®w Pnà Xncn¨v C{]ImcamWv. {_mbv¡än Kh¬saâv, FbvUUv {Ia¯nÂ. Xncph\´]pcw þ 376 (254, 122), sImÃw þ 362 (227, 135), ]¯\wXn« þ 464 (191, 273), Be¸pg þ 391 (215, 176), tIm«bw þ 515 (235, 280), CSp¡n þ 250 (137, 113), FdWmIpfw þ 455 (250, 205), XriqÀ þ 408 (135, 273), ]me¡mSv þ 353 (144, 209), ae¸pdw þ 237 (117, 120), tImgnt¡mSv þ 537 (149, 388), hb\mSv þ 91 (72, 19), I®qÀ þ 570 (144, 426), ImkÀtKmUv þ 243 (157, 86).

C¯c¯n A\mZmbIcamb kvIqfpIÄ h³tXmXn hÀ[n¡pIbpw C¯cw hnZymeb§fn A[ym]I\nba\w km[yaÃmsX hcnIbpw sNbvXtXmsS kÀ¡mcpw ]p\ÀhnNn´\¯n\p XbmdmbtXmsSbmWv \nehnepÅ A[ym]IcpsS XkvXnIsb¦nepw kwc£n¡s¸«phcp¶Xv. Ip«nIfpsS F®w Hcp ¢mkn 15 t]mepansæn am{Xw A\mZmbIcsa¶ \nÀhN\¯n \ne\nÀ¯nbm aXnsb¶ D¯chv 2011 \hw_À Bdn\v DWvSmbn.

Ignª hÀjs¯ IW¡n Hcp ¢mkn 15 Ip«nIÄ t]mepanÃmsX {]hÀ¯n¡p¶ kvIqfpIfpsS F®w 3531 BWv. C¯cw kvIqfpIfnembn 1,35,481 Ip«nIÄ ]Tn¡p¶pWvSv. A[ym]Icpw A\[ym]Icpambn 20,041 t]À Cu kvIqfpIfn \n¶mbn kÀ¡mÀ i¼fw ]äp¶hcmWv. CXn Gsdbpw H¶p apX \mephscbpÅ ss{]adn kvIqfpIfmWv. \mep ¢mkpIfnembn 60 Ip«nIsf¦nepw DWvSmbncn¡Wsa¶mWv \nÀtZiw. F¶mÂ, 2769 kvIqfpIfn 60 Ip«nIfn XmsgbmWv. 89,395 Ip«nIfmWv C¯c¯n A\mZmbIc ]«nIbn DÄs¸«n«pÅ kvIqfpIfn ]Tn¡p¶Xv. 12,580 A[ym]Icpw tPmensbSp¡p¶pWvSv.

H¶p apX GgphscbpÅ bp]n kvIqfpIfn 517 F®¯n \nÝnX F®w Ip«nIfnÃ. A©p apX Ggphsc ¢mkpIÄ am{XapÅ 123 bp]n kvIqfpIfn 45 Ip«nIÄt]mepanÃ. A©p apX 10 hsc ¢mkpIfpÅ sslkvIqfn 90 Ip«nIsf¦nepw thWsa¦nepw 27 kvIqfpIÄ A\mZmbIcamb ]«nIbnemWv. H¶p apX 10 hscbpÅ sslkvIqfpIÄ BZmbIcamIWsa¦n 150 Ip«nIÄ thWw. F¶mÂ, 82 kvIqfpIÄ Cu KW¯nepw A\mZmbIcamWv. 1306 A[ym]IÀ Cu kvIqfpIfnembpWvSv. F«p apX 10 hscbpÅ ¢mkpIÄ am{XapÅ sslkvIqfpIfn 13 F®¯n 45 Ip«nIÄ t]mepanÃm¯XmWv.

]¯n Xmsg Ip«nIfpÅ kvIqfpIÄ ]q«Wsa¶p \nbak`m kanXn

3531 kvIqfpIfn FÃm ¢mkpIfnepambn ]¯n Xmsg Ip«nIÄ ]Tn¡p¶ 191 hnZymeb§fpWvSv. 191 hnZymeb§fnse sam¯w Ip«nIfpsS F®w 1366 BWv. 695 A[ym]IcmWv ChÀ¡pthWvSnbpÅXv. 301 A[ym]IÀ Kh¬saâv kvIqfpIfnepw 394 t]À FbvUUv kvIqfpIfnepamWv. CXn 69 hnZymeb§Ä kÀ¡mÀ taJebnemWv. 122 FbvUUv hnZymeb§fpw DWvSv. cWvSp Ip«nIÄ¡v Hcp Poh\¡mc³ F¶XmWv C¯cw kvIqfpIfnse A\p]mXw. Ignª A[yb\hÀjw {]hÀ¯n¨ cWvSp kvIqfpIfn Hcp Ip«n t]mepanÃmbncp¶p. A[yb\hÀj¯nse Bdmw {]hr¯nZn\¯nse IWs¡Sp¸n Hcp Ip«nt]mepw F¯nbn«nsöv dnt¸mÀ«v \ÂInbmepw A[yb\hÀjw Ahkm\n¡p¶ amÀ¨v 31hsc kvIqÄ ASbv¡m\mInÃ. C¯c¯n Hcp kvIqsf¦nepw X\nsb {]hÀ¯\w \ne¨phcnIbmWv. ]¯\wXn« PnÃbnse dm¶n þ h«mÀIbw Kh¬saâv FÂ]nFkv, tIm¶n AXncp¦Â knFwFkv bp]n kvIqÄ F¶nhbmWv IgnªhÀjw Ip«nIÄ BcpanÃmsX \ne\n¶Xv. A©v kvIqfpIÄ Hmtcm Ip«n¡pthWvSnbmWp {]hÀ¯n¨Xv.

69 kÀ¡mÀ hnZymeb§fpw 122 FbvUUv hnZymeb§fpw ]¯pw AXn Xmsgbpw Ip«nIÄ ]Tn¡p¶hbmbpWvSv. FÂ]n hn`mK¯n 65 kvIqfpIÄ kÀ¡mÀ taJebnepw 116 F®w FbvUUv taJebnepamWv. bp]n hn`mK¯n cWvSv kÀ¡mÀ kvIqfpIfpw Bdv FbvUUv hnZymeb§fpamWv \ne\nev]n\mbn t]mcm«¯nepÅXv. kÀ¡mÀ sslkvIqfpIfn cWvSnS¯v ]¯n Xmsg Ip«nIfmWpÅXv. kvIqfpIÄ BZmbIcamsW¦nepw Asænepw Hmtcm {]tZi¯nsâbpw hnZym`ymk Bhiy¯nsâ ASnØm\¯n Bhiysa¦n kvIqÄ \ne\nÀt¯WvSXmsW¶ A`n{]mbw tIcf \nbak`bpsS lÀPnIÄ kw_Ôn¨ kanXnbpsS dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p.

F¶mÂ, {]tZi¯nsâ {]m[m\yw IW¡m¡n 10  Xmsg am{Xw Ip«nIÄ ]Tn¡p¶ kvIqfpIfnse Ip«nIsf sXm«Sp¯ kvIqfnte¡v amänbpw A[ym]Isc ]p\Àhn\ykn¨pw A\mZmbIcamb kvIqfpIÄ \nÀ¯em¡p¶Xns\¡pdn¨v BtemNn¡Wsa¶ \nÀtZihpw \nbak` kanXn Ignª Unkw_À H¼Xn\p \ÂInb dnt¸mÀ«n ]dbp¶p. F¶m HcphÀjw Ignªv \nbak` sXcsªSp¸ns\ A`napJoIcnt¡WvSXn\m kvIqfpIÄ ]q«n Hcp hnhmZ¯n\p IqSn XpS¡anSm³ kÀ¡mÀ B{Kln¡p¶pWvSmInÃ.

tIcf¯nse hnZym`ymk taJebv¡pWvSmIp¶ _p²nap«pIfpw {]iv\§fpw s]mXpkaqlw Pm{KXtbmsS hnebncp¯pIbpw sN¿p¶p. tIcf¯nsâ s]mXpk¼¯pw Icp¯pambn s]mXphnZym`ymks¯ \ne\nÀ¯m³ kaqlw F¡mehpw B{Kln¨n«pWvSv.

(XpScpw)


anIhnte¡p ]pXphgnIfpambn tIcf kmt¦XnI kÀhIemime

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tXmakv hÀKokv

tIcf¯n F³Pn\nbdnwKv ]T\w ]qÀWambpw Hcp IpS¡ognem¡n tIcf kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebnte¡p (sISnbp) amäs¸Spt¼mÄ sI«nepw a«nepw am{Xaà DÅS¡¯nepw ssienbnepw Gsd ]pXpaIfmWv DÄs¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶Xv. ImelcWs¸« tImgvkpIfnepw ]cm¼cmKX ]T\ coXnIfnIfnepw hcp¯p¶ amä§sf Gsd {]Xo£tbmsSbmWp kwØm\s¯ kmt¦XnI hnZym`ymk taJe Däpt\m¡p¶Xv.

Xncph\´]pcw BØm\amb tIcf kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsS sshkv Nm³keÀ tUm. Ips©dnb ]n. sFk¡mWv. kÀhIemimebpsS {]hÀ¯\§fpsS hnhc§Ä t{]mþ sshkv Nm³keÀ tUm.Fw. AÐpÄ dlvam³ Zo]nItbmSp ]¦phbv¡p¶p.

? tIcf kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsS e£yw F´mWv

sXmgn ss\]pWyapÅ Hcp kaqls¯ hmÀs¯Sp¡pI F¶ e£yt¯msS {]mÎn¡en\p IqSpX {]m[m\yamWp tIcf kmt¦XnI kÀhIemime \evIp¶Xv. IqSmsX F³Pn\nbdnwKv hnZym`ymk cwKs¯ ASnapSn ]cnjvIcn¡pI F¶ e£yhpapWvSv. kwØm\s¯ hnhn[ kÀhIemimeIfnembn Nn¶n¨nXdn¡nS¡p¶ FÃm kmt¦XnI hnZym`ymk Øm]\§tfbpw Hcp IpS¡ognem¡p¶tXmsS GIoIrX kne_kpw ]co£mcoXnIfpw \S¸m¡m³ km[n¡pw. amdp¶ kmlNcy§sfbpw kmt¦XnIhnZyIsfbpw D]tbmKs¸Sp¯n Ime¯ns\m¸w \S¡m\mWp kÀhIemime kaqlt¯mSp ]dbp¶Xv.

? GsXms¡ Øm]\§fmWv Cu kÀhIemimebpsS ]cn[nbn hcp¶Xv

kwØm\¯p tIcf, almßmKmÔn, Imen¡«v, I®qÀ, Ipkmäv F¶o A©p kÀhIemimeIfnembn A^nentbäp sN¿s¸« 156 F³Pn\nbdnwKv tImfPpIfpw 84 Fw_nF tImfPpIfpw 55 FwknF tImfPpIfpw ]pXnb kÀhIemimebpsS Iogn hcpw. IqSmsX FsFknSnC AwKoIcn¨ BÀ¡nsSIvNÀ tImfPpIfpw tlm«Â amt\Pvsaâv C³Ìnäyq«pIfpw kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsS A[nImc ]cn[nbn DÄs¸Sp¯pw.

kwØm\¯v BsIbpÅ 163 F³Pn\nbdnwKv tImfPpIfn 156 F®amWp kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsS A[nImc]cn[n¡pÅnte¡p amäp¶Xv. kwØm\s¯ kÀhIemimeIÄ t\cn«p \S¯p¶ Ggp F³Pn\nbdnwKv tImfPpIÄ CXnsâ ]cn[nbn hcnÃ.

tIcf kÀhIemime Imcyh«w Im¼knse kÀ¡mÀ F³Pn\nbdnwKv tImfPv, Imen¡«v kÀhIemime tXªn¸e¯p \S¯p¶ C³Ìnäyq«v Hm^v sSIvt\mfPn, FwPn kÀhIemime t\cn«p \S¯p¶ F³Pn\nbdnwKv tImfPv, Ipkmän\p IognepÅ cWvSv tImfPpIÄ, sImÃw AarX C³Ìnäyq«v F¶o tImfPpIfmWp kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsS ]Sn¡p ]pd¯p\nev¡pI.

Fw_nF, FwknF, BÀ¡nsSIvNÀ, tlm«Â amt\Pvsaâv Øm]\§Ä ASp¯ A[yb\hÀjw apX¡mWp kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebn A^nentbäv sN¿pI.

? _nsSIv tImgvkn Fs´ms¡ amä§fmWp \S¸m¡p¶Xv

Imew amdp¶Xn\\pkcn¨p ]mTy{Ia¯nepw ImXemb amä§Ä DWvSmIWw. AXn\\pkcn¨pÅ NphSphbv]pambmWp _nsSIv ]mTy{Iaw Xbmdm¡nbXv. CuhÀjw _nsS¡n\p tNcp¶ hnZymÀYnIÄ¡v BZy hÀjs¯ ]T\w cWvSp skaÌdmbmWp Xncn¨n«pÅXv. ap¼v Hcp hÀjsa¶XmWv Ct¸mÄ cWvSp skaÌÀ F¶ coXnbnte¡p amänbXv. ]T\w s{IUnäv k{¼Zmb¯nte¡p k¼qÀWambpw amän.

F³Pn\nbdnwKv A`ncpNn hfÀ¯m\pw F§s\bmhWw F³Pn\nbÀamÀ F¶p ]Tn¸n¡m\pambn F³Pn\nbdnwKv Unssk³, PohnX taJeIfnte¡p kpØnc hnIk\w \S¸nem¡p¶Xn\p ]cnØnXn {]m[m\yapÅ kssÌbv\_nÄ F³Pn\nbdnwKv F¶o cWvSp ]pXnb hnjb§Ä BZy hÀj¯n ]T\¯nsâ `mKam¡nbn«pWvSv. skaÌdn\p ]qÀWambn cPnkvt{Sj³ sN¿p¶ coXnbpw amdpw. C\n apX Hcp tImgvkn\mbncn¡pw hnZymÀYn cPnÌÀ sN¿pI. CXphgn hnZymÀYn¡p IqSpX ]T\kzmX{´yw e`n¡pw. hnZymÀYn¡v BhiyapÅ hnjb§Ä sXcsªSp¡m\pamIpw.

]T\t¯msSm¸w ]mtTyXc {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡pw henb {]m[m\yw kne_kn DÄs¸Sp¯nbn«pWvSv. kmaqly tkh\w, Ie, sXmgn kwcw`IXzw, F³knkn F¶nhbv¡mbn BgvNbn cWvSp aWn¡qÀ amänh¨n«pWvSv. Hmtcm hnjb¯n\pw tImgvkv I½nänIfpw ¢mkv I½nänIfpw hn`mh\w sNbvXXv hnZymÀYn kaql¯nsâ Bhiym\pkcWw ]T\hpw A[ym]\hpw amänsbSp¡pw. Cu I½nänIfn hnZymÀYnIÄ¡mWp IqSpX {]mXn\n[yw. {]mIvSn¡epIÄ¡p IqSpX {]m[m\yw \ÂInbmWp kne_kv cq]s¸Sp¯nbn«pÅXv. hyhkmb taJebpsS Bhiy§fpw F³Pn\nbdnwKv ]T\¯n DÄs¸Sp¯nbn«pWvSv.

? ]T\¯n anIhp sXfnbn¡p¶ hnZymÀYnIÄ¡mbn {]tXyI t{]mÕml\ ]²XnIÄ DtWvSm

]T\¯n anIhp sXfnbn¡p¶hsc t{]mÕmln¸n¡p¶Xn\pw KthjW taJebnte¡p hgnXncn¨p hnSp¶Xn\pw e£yan«v _nsSIv HmtWgvkv _ncpZhpw kÀhIemime Cu hÀjw apX \S¸m¡p¶p. \memw skaÌdn\p tijamWp Hcp hnZymÀYn HmtWgvkn\v cPnkvt{Sj³ \S¯pI. A´mcmjv{S Xe¯nepÅ kzoImcyX hÀ[n¸n¡p¶Xn\pw F³Pn\nbdnwKv cwK¯v KthjWw t{]mÕmln¸n¡p¶Xn\pamWv HmtWgvkv tImgvkpIÄ. HmtWgvkv _ncpZ[mcn FwsSIv ]T\¯n\v tNcpIbmsW¦n t\cs¯ t\Snb A[nI s{IUnäpIfnse hnjb§Ä hoWvSpw ]Tnt¡sWvS¶ kuIcyhpw CXn\pWvSv. _nsS¡n\p ^Ìv ¢mkv, UnÌnwKvj³ F¶nh CÃmXmIp¶p.

? aqey\nÀWb¯n hcp¯nbn«pff amä§Ä Fs´ms¡bmWv

aqey\nÀWbw Hm¬sse\n BIp¶p F¶XmWv Gsd {]tXyIX. ]co£m \S¯n¸pw aqey\nÀWbhpw ]qÀWambpw UnPnäemIpw. ]co£ IgnªmepS³ D¯c¡SemkpIÄ kvIm³ sNbvXp kÀhIemimem skÀhdn A]vtemUv sN¿p¶p. DS³ Xs¶ aqey\nÀWb¯n\mbn cWvSp A[ym]Icnte¡p t]¸dpIsf¯p¶p. ChbnsemcmÄ hnjbw ]Tn¸n¨ A[ym]I\mWv F¶Xp {it²bamWv.

Hm¬sse\nembn aqey\nÀWbw \S¯n aq¶p Znhk¯n\Iw Xncnt¨Â¸n¡p¶ coXnbmWp \S¸nem¡nbn«pÅXv. AXphgn Ahkm\ ]co£ Ignªv A©p Znhk¯n\Iw ^ew {]Jym]n¡m³ Ignbpw. hnZymÀYnIÄ¡pw A[ym]IÀ¡pw bqkÀ sFUn \ÂIn FÃmw CXphgn {IaoIcn¡pw.

? ]pkvXIw Xpd¶ph¨p ]co£sbgpXm³ Ahkcw \evIp¶p F¶ coXnsb¡pdn¨v

hnZymÀYnIÄ ImWmsX ]Tn¨p ]co£ FgpXp¶Xn \n¶p hyXykvXambmWp ]pkvXIw Xpd¶ph¨p ]co£ FgpXpIsb¶ Bibw. hnjbs¯¡pdn¨v hniIe\hpw Hmtcm hnZymÀYn¡papÅ A`ncpNnbpamWv Af¡p¶Xv. BZyL«sa¶ \nebn ]pXpXmbn DÄs¸Sp¯nb F³Pn\nbdnwKv Unssk³ F¶ hnjb¯n\mWv Hm¸¬ _p¡v k{¼Zmbw GÀs¸Sp¯p¶Xv. Gsd Krl]mT§Ä sNbvXpthWw A[ym]IÀ Cu hnjb¯n tNmZy§Ä Xbmdmt¡WvSXv.


? _ncpZm\´c_ncpZ tImgvkpIfn DWvSm¡nbn«pÅ amä§Ä Fs´ms¡bmWv

_ncpZm\´c _ncpZ tImgvkpIfn kmt¦XnI kÀhIemime sImWvSph¶ Gähpw henb amäw _ncpZm\´c _ncpZ tImgvkv \S¯n¸n\v kzbw`cW A[nImcw \evInsb¶XmWv. CtXmsS Hmtcm F³Pn\nbdnwKv tImfPn\pw hnjb§fpw kne_kpw \nÀWbn¡m\pÅ Ahkcw e`n¡pw. CXn\mbn F³Pn\nbdnwKv tImfPpIsf ]¯p tImfPpIÄ hoXapÅ ¢ÌdpIfm¡n. Cu ¢Ìdn\p ]qÀW kzbw`cWhpw \evIn.

Hmtcm ¢Ìdnsâbpw sNbÀam·mcmbn sFsFSnIÄ DÄs¸sSbpÅ D¶X hnZym`ymk Øm]\§fnse {]^kÀamscbmWp \nban¨n«pÅXv. IqSmsX hymhkmbnI cwK¯p anIhp {]ISn¸n¨ {]KÛscbpw ¢ÌdpIfn DÄs¸Sp¯pw. CXneqsS F³Pn\nbdnwKv ]T\w IqSpX {]mtbmKnIam¡p¶Xn\pw {]mtZinI, hyhkmbnI Npäp]mSpIÄ¡\pkcn¨v tImgvkpIÄ {IaoIcn¡p¶Xn\pw Ahkcsamcp§pw.


? _ncpZ]T\¯n\nSbn Ah[nsbSp¡m³ Ahkcsamcp¡p¶ptWvSm

_ncpZ ]T\¯n\nSbn Bhiysa¦n Hcp CSthf \evIp¶Xn\pÅ {IaoIcWhpw tIcf kmt¦XnI kÀhIemime Hcp¡nbn«pWvSv. _ncpZ ]T\Ime¯n\nSbn Hcp hÀjw Ah[nsbSp¯v amdn\n¡mw. ]T\¯n\nSbn Hcp hnZymÀYn¡p sXmgn kwcw`I³ BIWsa¶ B{Klw tXm¶nbmtem Hcp {]tXyI hnjb¯n {]tXyI KthjW¯n\mbn amdWsa¶p tXm¶nbmtem AXn\pÅ Ahkcw kmt¦XnI kÀhIemime \evIpw.


? A¡mZanIv HmUnänwKneqsS e£yanSp¶Xv Fs´ms¡ Imcy§fmWv

kmt¦XnI kÀhIemime \S¸m¡p¶ amä§Ä hnZym`ymkcwK¯pw ]T\cwK¯pw F{Xam{Xw \nehmcw DbÀ¯n F¶dnbp¶Xn\mbmWv A¡mZanIv HmUnänwKv F¶ Bibw \S¸m¡nbXv. kmt¦XnIcwKs¯ hnZKv[sc DÄs¸Sp¯n k¼qÀW HmUnänwKv \S¯p¶Xv. Hmtcm tImfPnepw CtâW HmUnäv skÃpIfpWvSmIpw. CtâW amÀ¡v, ]co£m k{¼Zmb§Ä, tNmZyt]¸À Xbmdm¡Â, em_v ]cojW§Ä XpS§nb FÃm Imcy§fpw HmUnän\p hnt[bam¡pw.

kmt¦XnIhnZym`ymk taJebn kaqe amä§Ä¡p XpS¡an«p Ime¯ns\m¸w hcpwXeapdsb \bn¡pI F¶XmWp tIcf kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsS \bw. km£cX, {]mYanI hnZym`ymkw, am\h hn`htijn F¶nhbn anIhp ]peÀ¯p¶ aebmfnIÄ D¶X hnZym`ymk `q]S¯n FhnsSbpanà F¶XmWp hkvXpX. Cu shÃphnfn adnIS¡m\mWp kmt¦XnI kÀhIemime e£yanSp¶Xv.

A¡mZanI kzmX{´yhpw kpXmcyXbpw Dd¸phcp¯nbpÅ kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsS \o¡w tIcf kaql¯n\p ]pXnb {]Xo£bmWp \evInbn«pÅXv. hcpwhÀj§fn kmt¦XnI kÀhIemimebpsSsS {]hÀ¯\ anIhv hnZym`ymkcwK¯p henb amä§Ä¡v CSbm¡pw.

(kÀhIemimebpsS HutZymKnI sh_vsskävþ www.ktu.edu.in)






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