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BÀ¡pthWvSn Cu A`ymk§Ä?

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A\´]pcn /ZznP³

tIcf¯nse ap¸Xp e£w P\§sf Bi¦bpsS apÄap\bn \nÀ¯ns¡mWvSp apÃs¸cnbmÀ AWs¡«nse Pe\nc¸v DbcpIbmWv. ]WvSp kn]nsF¡mcpsS t\Xmhmbncp¶ apJya{´n kn. ANypX tat\ms\s¡mWvSp t\SnsbSp¯ Icmdnsâ _ew]nSn¨p Xangv\mSv kÀ¡mÀ tIcf¯nse P\§sf ssZhIcpWbv¡p am{Xw hn«psImSp¡pIbmWv. ANypXat\m³ am{Xaà tIcfw kz´w `mKw hmZn¡m³ G¸n¨ Adnbs¸Sp¶ \nbaÚcpw tIcfs¯ h©n¨p. AhÀ¡v AXn\p hne hÃXpw In«ntbm F¶Xv AhÀ¡p am{Xw Adnbp¶ kXyw. F¶mÂ, Ahsc¡pdn¨p kwibw t]mepw {]ISn¸n¨m AhcpsS Bcm[IÀ¡p lmenfIpw. Ahsc¡pdn¨v A§s\ ]dbmtam F¶mWv Bcm[IcpsS tNmZyw.

CXn\nsS, GXp {]XnkÔnbpw t\cnSm³ kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ kÖamsW¶v CSbv¡nsS a{´namtcm A¯c¯nepÅ D¶Xtcm {]kvXmh\bnd¡p¶p. Zpc´w kw`hn¨m kÀ¡mcn\v F´psN¿m\mhpw F¶mhptam hnizknt¡WvSXv? kp{]owtImSXnbn \n¶pt]mepw \oXn In«p¶nà F¶p P\w hnizkn¡p¶p. C¯cw Ahkc§fnemWv Icp¯pÅ Hcp {]mtZinI ]mÀ«nbpsS A`mhw tIcfw A\p`hn¡p¶Xv.

ChnsS Hmtcm ]mÀ«nbpw \ne]mSpIÄ FSp¡p¶Xp thm«ps]«nbnse {]Xn^e\w t\m¡nbmWv. GsX¦nepw Hcp ]mÀ«n iàamb \ne]mSpambn apt¶m«p h¶ncps¶¦n FÃmhcpw DWcpambncp¶p. kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ kÀh£n kt½f\w hnfn¨ncn¡p¶Xp RmbdmgvN! At¸mtg¡pw cWvSnsem¶v Adnbmw F¶Xmhpw a\knencn¸v. _m_dn akvPnZv Hcp hnhmZambn Ccn¡p¶Xnepw \ÃXp \in¸n¡s¸Sp¶XmWv F¶p IcpXnb `cWm[nImcnIfpsS a\kmIptam \½psS t\Xm¡Ä¡pw?

AWs¡«n shÅw s]m§p¶XpsImWvSv BhmkhyhØbnepw henb amäw hcp¶pWvSs{X. ]£nIÄ¡p tNt¡dm³ CSanÃ, B\IÄ¡p shÅw IpSn¡m³ IShnà Fs¶ms¡ Nne ]cnØnXn hmÀ¯IfpWvSv. FÃpapdnsb ]WnsbSp¯p \mSns\ t]mäp¶ IÀjIs\ ssItbä¡mc\mbn Nn{XoIcn¨v Ahsâ tNmcbv¡v aÕcn¨p hne]dbp¶hÀ Ft´ Ct¸mÄ H¶pw anWvSp¶nÃ? Cu A]IS§Ä BÀ¡pw thZ\n¡m¯sX´v? BÀ¡pw thWvSm¯Xp a\pjys\tbm?

tIcf¯n\p ssZhw X¶ Pek¼¯v hnesbm¶pw IqSmsX Xangv\mSn\p hnäXnsâ ]m]`mcw t]dp¶ kn]nsF F{X XtâSt¯mSbmWvv ChnsS hnekp¶Xv! _mÀ apXemfnamÀ sImSp¯Xmbn AhImis¸Sp¶ tImgbmWv AhcpsS henb hnjbw. FÃmw \jvSs¸« Hcp _mÀ apXemfn \S¯nb NmthÀ B{IaWw AhcpsS BÄ¡mÀ Xs¶ k½Xn¡p¶nÃ. kwØm\ hnPne³kv \S¯nb At\zjW¯n tNmZyw sN¿s¸« BÀ¡pw A§s\ Hcp kw`hs¯¡pdn¨v AdnbnÃ. Btcm]WIÀ¯mhp t]mepw t]meoknt\mSp ]dªXp thsd Imcyw. sslt¡mSXn FÃmw tcJmaqew thWsa¶p ]dªncn¡p¶p. AXpsImWvSp Unkw_À cWvSphsc NÀ¨bv¡p hnjbw thsd t\mt¡WvS.

_mdpIÄ \jvSs¸«Xn hÃm¯ AaÀjapÅ shÅm¸Ån¡pw _mdpImÀ ]ncn¨ ss]kbpsS Imcy¯n kwibapWvSv. ]ncn¨ Imcy¯n\v H¶paà AhÀ D]tbmKn¨sX¶v At±lw ]dbp¶p. shÅm¸Ånsb ]pd¯m¡m\pÅ kac¯n _nPp AXn Iptd ]Ww D]tbmKns¨¶pw shÅm¸Ån IcpXp¶p. CSXpap¶WnbpsS `cWIme¯v _mdn\pthWvSn Hcp ss]kt]mepw BÀ¡pw sImSpt¡WvSnh¶n«nsöpIqSn _nPp ]dªXv At±l¯nsâ hnizmkyX hÀ[n¸n¨p! ImcWw hnjaZy¯n\p ]nSnIqSnb Hcp apXemfnbpsS Ubdnbnse amk¸Sn¡mcn DWvSmbncp¶Xv CSXpt\Xm¡Ä am{Xambncp¶p. enÌn t]cpWvSmbncp¶XpsImWvSv Hcp ]mÀ«nbpsS PnÃm sk{I«dnsb amtäWvSnbpw h¶p.

_mdpIÄ \nÀ¯em¡p¶Xn\p kÀ¡mcns\ t{]cn¸n¨ {]apJscsbÃmw e£ywh¨mWp _mdpImcpsS \o¡w F¶p hyàw. kp[oc³ P\]£ bm{X Bcw`n¨ kabwXs¶ Cu NmthÀ B{IaW¯n\p sXcsªSp¯Xv A¡mcWw sImWvSmsW¶p IcpXm³ \ymbw GsdbmWv. kp[ocs\¡pdn¨v AgnaXnsbm¶pw In«m¯XpsImWvSv ]¸p AhmÀUv In«m³ X§sf kzm[o\n¡m³ {ian¨psh¶v H¶p ]dªpt\m¡n. _nPp ]dbp¶ FÃm Bt£]¯nepw thsdbpw BÄ¡mÀ CSs]«ncn¡p¶XpsImWvSpw Ahcmcpw _nPp ]dbp¶ Imcyw Adnbm¯XpsImWvSpw _nPphns\ hnizkn¡m³ cmjv{Sob FXncmfnIÄ¡p am{Xta km[n¡p¶pÅq.

F¶n«pw Hcp _mÀ apXemfnbn \n¶p P\]£bm{Xb¡v GtXm tIm¬{KkpImc³ _nÃp sImSp¯p ]ncn¨ 5000 cq] am[ya§Ä¡p In«n. AXp am[ya§Ä¡p In«nbXpw ckoXv sImSp¯p ]ncn¨Xpw FÃmw ]e Xe§fn \S¶ KqVmtemN\bmsW¶p IsWvS¯m³ Hcp kn.F^v. tXmakv kanXn H¶pw thWvStÃm? _mdpImcpsS ss]k thsWvS¶p ]dbp¶ kp[ocsâ ]mÀ«nbnse Hcp a{´n _mÀ I¨hS¡mc\mWtÃm F¶p ]{X¡mÀ tNmZn¨t¸mÄ, X\n¡dnbnsömbncp¶p kp[ocsâ adp]Sn. a{´n ASqÀ {]Imin\p _mdptWvSm F¶p IrXyambn ]{X¡mÀ FIvsskkv a{´ntbmSp sXc¡nbt¸mÄ BÀs¡ms¡ _mdpsWvS¶v FÃmhÀ¡pw Adnbntà F¶mbncp¶p adp]Sn. A§s\ kp[oc³ ]dªXp \pWbmsW¶p thWvShÀ¡p hnizkn¡¯¡hn[¯n _m_p Imcyw F¯n¨p.

sI.Fw. amWns¡Xntc Bt£]w D¶bn¨ Znhkw _nPp ctaiv a{´n ASqÀ {]Imipambn ]eh«w t^mWn _Ôs¸«Xmbn tIcf tIm¬{KkpImÀ¡dnbmw. AXv Hcp IeymW¡mcyw kwkmcn¡m\mbncp¶p F¶v tIm¬{KkpImcpw ]dbp¶pWvSv.

kÀ¡mÀ ]camh[n FIvsskkpImtc klmbn¡pIbmWv. _mdpIÄ Xpd¡m\pÅ hn[ns¡Xnsc A¸o sImSp¡m³ hÃm¯ Ah[m\X ImWn¡p¶p. cmhnse ]dª hn[ns¡Xntc D¨bv¡v A¸o sImSp¯p Pm{KX Im«nbhÀ¡v C¡mcy¯n t\cptWvSm F¶p ]mÀ«n¡mÀ¡p t]mepw kwibambn. A¸o sshIn¡pI F¶Xpw henb Hcp klmbamWtÃm. XSkw \nt¶¡mhp¶hÀs¡XnscsbÃmw _mÀ apXemfnamÀ AgnaXnbpw ]dtªmfpw. A¸o sshIn¨m kzm`mhnIambpw ]cnKW\ sshIpw. A§s\ G{]n hsc F¯n¡m\mbm Hcp hÀjw IS¶pt]mIpw. _m_phns\ Ifn ]Tn¸n¡p¶hÀ¡v At±ls¯ a\knemIm¯Xpt]mse!

CsXms¡ Bbmepw amWns¡Xnsc kn]nsF \S¯nb kacw AUPvÌv sNbvXp XoÀ¯p. PpUoj At\zjWw thWsa¶ Bhiywhsc ]mÀ«n Dt]£n¨p. CSXpap¶Wn A¯csamcp Bhiyw D¶bn¨XpsImWvSà kn]nsF Cu hn¹h Xocpam\w FSp¯Xv. kXyw ]dªm apt¶m«p sImWvSpt]mIm³ hgnbnÃm¯Xp sImWvSmWv. AXmbXp ]¶y³ ]dª AUvPÌvsaâv. BcmWv AUvPÌvsaâv kacw \S¯nbsX¶p ]dbWsa¶p ]nWdmbn apJ¯pt\m¡n ]dªt¸mÄ ]dbpIbà ImWn¨psImSp¡mw F¶mbn ]¶y³. Hm´v HmSnbm thentbmfw F¶p hnPbs\ Bcp ]Tn¸n¡Ww!

]nWdmbnbpsS shÃphnfns¡Xntc ]¶y³ ]{Xkt½f\¯neqsS adp]Sn ]dbp¶p F¶p ]dªt¸mÄ ]WvSp s]m¶m\n koän\p thWvSn \S¯nb ISn]nSnbpsS Ime¯v shfnbw \S¯nb Xos¸mcn ]{Xkt½f\w ]ecpw HmÀ¯p. ]¶y³ Ipfn¨m shfnbamIptam? F¶n«pw At±lw Fs´ms¡tbm ]dªp F¶ kt´mj¯nemWp kn]nsF¡mÀ. tIm«bw kt½f\w Ahkm\w ]¶ys\ \nÀ_Ôn¨p sk{I«dn B¡ptam F¶mWp temIvk`m koäv I¨hS¯n ]¦mfnIfmbhcpsSbpw AÃm¯hcpsSbpw kwibw. ]nWdmbn cWvSp ]dªtXmsS kn]nsF¡v FÃmw a\knembn. AhcpsS hg¡pw XoÀ¶p.

AXnepw AZv`pXw CSXpap¶Wnbnse {]apJ LSII£nbmb ]n.kn. tXmakv hn`mK¯nse ]nfÀ¸v Ahkm\n¨p tbmPn¸nembXmWv. AtXmsS ]gb iàn Xncn¨pIn«nb ]mÀ«n P\d sk{I«dn tPmÀPv sk_mÌy³ AUvPÌvsaâv kac¯n kn]nsFsb IS¶m{Ian¨v bPam\kvt\lw ImWn¨p.

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kn]nF½n\p t_mt[mZbw DWvSmhpIbmWv. Øm\samgnbp¶ sk{I«dn {]Imiv Imcm«v BÀFkvFkns\ IWvSp]Tn¡m³ kJm¡sf D]tZin¨p. UÂlnbn Fw.sI. ]msÙ kvamcI {]`mjWw \S¯pIbmbncp¶p At±lw. IWvSp]Tn¡m³ amXrIIÄ CÃm¯XmWv C¶s¯ kJm¡fpsS henb {]iv\w. C.Fw.Fkpw F.sI.Pnbpw Hs¡ ImWn¨ amXrI \S¡nÃ. ]nWdmbn¡pw aäpw Fw.hn.BÀ ImWn¨ hgnbpw t]mcm. Imcm«ns\ H«pw A\pIcn¡m\mhnÃ. kJm¡Ä¡pw ]mÀ«n¡pw amäw thWw Xm\pw. At±lw t\m¡nbn«v Ct¸mgpÅXv BÀFkvFkv am{Xw.

kaql¯nsâ kakvX taJeIfnepw AhÀ \pgªpIbdp¶p F¶mWp Imcm«nsâ IsWvS¯Â. kJm¡Ä C\n sXmgn {]iv\§Ä am{Xw GsäSp¯m t]msc¶pw kmaqlnIþ Iem taJeIfnepw {]hÀ¯n¡Wsa¶pw Imcm«v D]tZin¡p¶p. ASp¯ tI{µ I½nänbn Hcp _Z tcJbv¡pIqSn kvtIm¸mbn. tamZnsb A\pIcn¡m³ BÀs¡¦nepw tXm¶p¶psWvS¦n Ipäw ]dªn«v F´pImcyw?

tIm¬{Kkv C\n F´p sN¿Ww F¶Xns\¸än Xocpam\n¡m³ cmlp KmÔn Bdpamkambn \S¯p¶ NÀ¨ XpScpIbmWv. bq¯v tIm¬{Kkn\v GÀs¸Sp¯nb aÕccoXn amäm³ am{Xw Xocpam\ambn. AXmbXv kwLS\m sXcsªSp¸v ]gbXpt]mse Xs¶ \S¡pw. hmÀUnsems¡ CeIvj³. apIfnte¡p hcpt¼mÄ ]¦phbv]v. A§s\h¶m ]mhw kp[oc\v F´mhptam kw`hn¡pI?

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tIcf¯nse cWvSp apXnÀ¶ DtZymKØÀs¡Xnsc hnPne³kv tIkmbn. AXn cmlp \mbÀ tae[nImcnIfpsS Ifnbn hoWXmsW¶v At±l¯n\pthWvSn ]mSp¶ ]mW·mÀ ]dbp¶pWvSv. GXmbmepw cWvSv D¶X t]meokv DtZymKØÀs¡Xntc ss{Iw{_m©v tIkmbn. cmlp \mbcpsS ]cmXnbpsS ASnØm\¯nemWp tIkv. F´mhptam At\zjW^ew? AhÀ {]Xn¡q«n \nÀ¯s¸«m AhcpsS samgn thsd BÀs¡¦nepw FXntc hcptam? H¶pWvSv; kwibn¡¯¡ kmlNcy§sfÃmw DWvSmbXpsImWvSmWp tIkv.

s]mXpacma¯v hIp¸nemsW¦nepw Sn.H. kqcPv D¯chpIÄ kzoIcn¡p¶Xp a{´n Ipªmen¡p«nbnÂ\n¶msW¶p ]tWvS \m«n ]m«mWv. At±l¯nsâ ho«n hnPne³kv sdbvUv \S¯n. 24 e£w cq]bpw tImSn¡W¡n\p cq]bpsS tcJIfpw IsWvSSp¯p. kqcPv kXykÔ\msW¶pw At±ls¯ th«bmSpIbmsW¶pw CXphsc Bcpw ]dªnÃ. \msf ]dªpIqSmbvIbnÃ.

hnPne³kv sdbvUv \S¯nbhÀs¡Xntc At±lw \msf \jvS]cnlmct¡kv sImSp¯p henb A`n`mjIsc h¨p hmZn¨p ]cns¡m¶pw CÃmsX ]pd¯phcmw. At¸mÄ At\zjW DtZymKØÀs¡Xntc \mep tIkmImw. kXykÔambn Pohn¨hÀ¡p s]³j³ ImipsImWvSv tIkv \St¯WvSnhcpw. IpSpw_w t]mepw t¢in¡pw. AhÀ sNbvX sXäv Fs´¶p t]mepw ]dbmsX \S]Snbpw DWvSmImw.

kXykÔ\pw {]KÛ\pamb tIkt\zjI³ kn_n amXyp Xs¶ DZmlcWw. tIcfs¯ sR«n¨ Icn¡n³hnà sImet¡kv, chnb¨³ tIkv, amÀ¡v enÌv X«n¸v tIkv, IÃphmXp¡Â aZyZpc´t¡kv, Nmct¡kv, kqcys\Ãn tIkv XpS§n \nch[n tIkpIÄ hnizkvXamb At\zjW¯n\pthWvSn kÀ¡mÀ \nÀ_Ôn¨p \ntbmKn¨ DtZymKØ\mbncp¶p At±lw. At±lw ]dbp¶Xpw IsWvS¯p¶Xpw P\w hnizkn¨p. Ct¸mgnXm Nmct¡kn A¸o t]mIm³ kÀ¡mÀ hnk½Xn¡p¶p. kp{]owtImSXn hn[ns¡Xntc kab¯v A¸o t]mbncps¶¦n Hgnhm¡mambncp¶ Zpc´amWnsX¶v At±lw hnizkn¡p¶p.

Nmct¡kn IÅ¡fnIÄ \S¶psh¶v F{Xtbm D¶X t]meokpImÀ ]dbp¶p. Nmct¡kv kw_Ôn¨ At\zjWs¯ A¡me¯p sslt¡mSXn apàIWvTw {]iwkn¨XpamWv. am[ya§fpw A¶p kn_n amXyphns\ hmgv¯nbncp¶p. Ct¸mÄ s]³j³ Imiv D]tbmKn¨p tIkv \St¯WvSnhcp¶p. F´n\p s]mÃm¸n\p t]mIWsa¶v C\nbpÅhÀ Nn´n¨m F´]mIX!

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PÀa³ImcpsS `mjmkvt\lw k½Xn¡Ww. C´ybnse tI{µob hnZymeb§fnse aq¶mw`mjbmWp PÀa³. AXp amän kwkvIrXam¡m³ tI{µkÀ¡mÀ Xocpam\n¨p. D¨tImSns¡¯nb \tc{µ tamZntbmSp PÀa³ Nm³keÀ BwKe saÀ¡Â \S¯nb Hcp A`yÀY\ B \o¡w Dt]£n¡Ww F¶mbncp¶p. PÀa\nbpsS Aw_mkUÀ ssa¡Â ssÌ\À BÀFkvFkv t\Xm¡sfbpw IWvSp \nthZ\w \S¯n. \½psS `mjbpsS Imcyambncps¶¦ntem?


`mcXk`bpsS ]pWy]cnaf§Ä

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C´ybn \n¶pÅ hnip²À

1. amÀt¯m½m Çol (acWw FUn 72)

`mcX¯n kphntijhpambn h¶ tbiphnsâ A¸kvtXme\mb amÀt¯m½mbpsS P·Øew Keoen BsW¶p hnizkn¡s¸Sp¶p. tXm½ F¶ Acamb ]Z¯n\pw ZnZntamkv F¶ {Ko¡p hm¡n\pw Cc« F¶mWv AÀYw. tXm½ F.Un. 52  sImSp§Ãqcnse¯nsb¶pw sImSp§ÃqÀ, sImÃw, \ncWw, tIm¡awKew, NmbÂ, ]mebqÀ, tIm«¡mhv F¶nhnS§fn ]ÅnIfpw aebmäqcn Ac¸Ånbpw Øm]n¨psh¶pamWp ]mc¼cy hnizmkw. 69  tNmgaWvUe¯n kphntijhpambn F¯nb Çol 72  ]d¦naebn h¨v càkm£nbmbn.

ssaem¸qcn AS¡nb tXm½mÇolmbpsS AØnIÄ 222þ GtZkbnte¡v sImWvSpt]mbn. 1141  GtZk XpÀ¡nIÄ IogS¡nbt¸mÄ Izntbmkv Zzo]nte¡p sImWvSpt]mbn. AhnsS \n¶v Cäenbnse HÀt¯mtWmbnte¡p amän. 1954  IÀZn\mÄ SnkdmMv HÀt¯mtWmbn \n¶p heXp ssIbpsS AØn ssaem¸qcn sImWvSph¶p Øm]n¨p.

2. {^m³knkv tkhyÀ (1506þ1552)

`mcX¯nsâ ZznXob A¸kvtXme\mbn hW§s¸Sp¶ hnip² {^m³knkv tkhyÀ 1506 G{]n Ggn\p kvs]bn\nse \hmdbn tUm¬ Pphm³ Un PmtkmbpsSbpw tUmW acnbbpsSbpw A©mas¯ k´m\ambn P\n¨p. k¼¶ IpSpw_mwKambncp¶ At±lw ]mcokv kÀhIemimebn h¨v hnip² Ctájykv setbmfbpambn ]cnNbs¸«p. 1534  auWvSv tamÀs«bn Cutimk` Øm]n¡m³ H¯pIqSnb Ggpt]cn Hcmfmbn.

1541  anj\dnbmbn C´ybnse¯n. tKmh BØm\am¡n Ggp hÀjw anj\dn {]hÀ¯\w \S¯n. Bbnc§sf am\km´cs¸Sp¯n. 1549  aem¡bnte¡p t]mbn. AhnsS\n¶p P¸m\nte¡pw. 1551  C´ybn Xncns¨¯n. 1552  ssN\bnte¡p t]mbn. jm³Kmhm\n F¯nbt¸mÄ ]\n ]nSn¨p acn¨p. arXtZlw AhnsS kwkvIcns¨¦nepw ]n¶oSp tKmhbn sImWvSph¶p. icocw Ct¸mgpw AgpImXncn¡p¶p. 1622  At±ls¯ hnip²\mbn {]Jym]n¨p. Unkw_À aq¶n\v At±l¯nsâ Xncp\mÄ sImWvSmSp¶p.

3. tKm¬kmtem KmÀknb (1557 þ 1597)

apwss_bv¡Sp¯p hmsskbn 1557  P\n¨p. t]mÀ«pKokpImc\mb ]nXmhnsâ t]cv KpWvSnÉmhqkv KmÀknb. A½ C´y¡mcn. hmsskbn tPmen sNbvXncp¶ Cutimk`m sshZnIt\msSm¸w 1572  P¸m\nte¡p t]mbn. Cutimk`bn tNcm\pÅ tamlw \S¶nÃ. AXpsImWvSv ^nen¸o³kn\p t]mbn. AhnsS h¨v {^m³knkvI³ k`bn tNÀ¶p. 1588  {hXsaSp¯p. 1594  hoWvSpw P¸m\nse¯n.

\mKkm¡n aebn 1597 s^{_phcn 15 \p Ipcninteän h[n¡s¸« 26 anj\dnamcn KmÀknbbpw DWvSmbncp¶p. 1627  hmgv¯s¸«h\mbn DbÀ¯s¸«p. 1862 Pq¬ F«n\v H¼Xmw ]obqkv amÀ]m¸ At±ls¯ hnip²\mbn {]Jym]n¨p. s^{_phcn Bdn\mWp Xncp\mÄ.

4. tPm¬ Un. {_nt«m (1647þ1693)

enkv_Wn tUm¬ kmÂhtZmÀ {_nt«mbpsSbpw tUmWn {_n¨kv s]tccbpsSbpw \memas¯ aI\mbn 1647 amÀ¨v H¶n\v P\n¨p. 1662  Cutimk`bn tNÀ¶p. 1673  sshZnI\mbn. 1673 amÀ¨v 15 \v C´ybn F¯n. a[pc anjsâ NpaXe e`n¨p. C´y³ k\ymknsbt¸mse Pohn¨p. Acpfm\´À F¶ t]cp kzoIcn¨p. adhcmPmhv tkXp]Xn 1693 s^{_phcn \men\v Hcnbqcn h¨v Acpfm\´sc KftOZw \S¯n. icocw h\yarK§Ä¡v Xoäbm¡n. AØnIÄ enkv_Wn sImWvSpt]mbn kwkvIcn¨p. 1852 At±ls¯ hmgv¯s¸«h\mbn DbÀ¯n. 1947 Pq¬ 22 \v ]{´WvSmw]obpkv amÀ]m¸ At±ls¯ hnip²\mbn {]Jym]n¨p. s^{_phcn \men\mWv Xncp\mÄ.



5. AÂt^m³km½ (1910þ1946)

1910 HmKÌv 19 \v tIm«bw PnÃbnse IpSamfqcn ap«¯p]mSw `h\¯n P\\w. 1927  ¢mck`bn tNÀ¶p. 1928  intcmhkv{Xhpw 1930  k`mhkv{Xhpw kzoIcn¨p. 1936  \nXy{hXw \S¯n. kl\¯nsâ Xo¨qfbn Fcnª A½ 1946 Pqsse 28 \v A´cn¨p.

1986 s^{_phcn F«n\v tPm¬ t]mÄ amÀ]m¸ tIm«b¯p h¨v AÂt^m³km½sb hmgv¯s¸«hfmbn {]Jym]n¨p. 2008 HIvtSm_À 12 \p _\UnISv ]Xn\mdma³ amÀ]m¸ hnip²bmbn {]Jym]n¨p. Pqsse 28 \mWp Xncp\mÄ.

hmgv¯s¸«hÀ

1. ^m. tPmk^v hmkv (1651þ1711)

{ioe¦bnse A¸kvtXme\mbncp¶ ^m. tPmk^v hmkv 1651 G{]n 21 \v tKmhbnse t_mt\mfnan P\n¨p. 1676  sshZnI\mbn. {ioe¦bn anj\dnbmbn. 1711 P\phcn 17 ³ Im³Unbn A´cn¨p. 1996 Pqsse Bdn\p tPm¬ t]mÄ cWvSma³ amÀ]m¸ At±ls¯ hmgv¯s¸«hcpsS KW¯n DÄs¸Sp¯n.

2. adnbw t{Xky (1876þ 1926)

Xncp¡pSpw_ k\ymkn\n k`bpsS Øm]Ibmb adnbw t{Xky 1870 G{]n 26 \p XriqÀ ]p¯³Nndbn P\n¨p. Akm[mcWamb ssZhm\p`h§Ä e`n¨ AhÄ 1913  kz´amb Hcp {]mÀY\meb¯n Xmakn¨pXpS§n. 1914 tabv 14 \p Xncp¡pSpw_ k\ymkn\n k` Øm]n¨p. 1926 Pq¬ F«n\p Ipgn¡m«pticnbn A´cn¨p. 1982  \maIcW \S]SnIÄ Bcw`n¨p. 2000 G{]n H¼Xn\v tPm¬ t]mÄ cWvSma³ amÀ]m¸ hmgv¯s¸«hcpsS KW¯n DÄs¸Sp¯n.

3. tXhÀ]d¼n Ipª¨³ (1891þ1973)

]mem cq]Xbn A[nIw Bcmepw Adnbs¸SmsX ZfnXÀ¡nSbn am{Xw {]hÀ¯n¨ tXhÀ]d¼n Ipª¨³ cma]pcw CShIbnse tXhÀ]d¼n IpSpw_¯n 1891 G{]n H¶n\p P\n¨p. 1921 Unkw_À 17 \p ]«taäp. 42 hÀjs¯ ]utcmlnXy PohnX¯nemIam\w cma]pcs¯ aq¶v AknÌâv hnImcnamcn Hcmfmbn Pohn¨p. 1973 HIvtSm_À 16 \p acn¨p. 2006 Unkw_À \men\p _\UnIvSv ]Xn\mdma³ amÀ]m¸ hmgv¯s¸«h\mbn DbÀ¯n.

4. aZÀ sXtck (1910 þ1997)

AKXnIfpsS A½ F¶ t]cn hn{ipXbmb aZÀ sXtck 1910 HmKÌv 10 \v AÂt_\nbmbn P\n¨p. t]cv Bákv. 1928 AbÀe³Unse semtdtäm k`bn tNÀ¶p. As¡mÃw Xs¶ C´ybnse¯n. 1937  \nXy{hXsaSp¯p. A[ym]nIbmbn tPmen sNbvXp. 1946 ]mh§sf tkhn¡m\pÅ hnfn e`n¨p. 1950 anj\dokv Hm^v Nmcnän k` Bcw`n¨p. 1963 {_ZÀamcpsS k`bpw XpS§n. sS¼nÄ«³ AhmÀUv (1973), s\mt_ k½m\w (1979), `mcXcXv\w (1980) XpS§n \nch[n ]pckvImc§Ä e`n¨p. 1997 sk]väw_À A©n\p acn¨p. 1999  \maIcW \S]Sn Bcw`n¨p. 2003  hmgv¯s¸«hfmbn.

5. tZhklmbw ]nÅ (1712þ 1752)

1712 G{]n 23 \p P\n¨p. 1741  It¯men¡\mbn. 1752 P\phcn 14 \p Xncps\Âthen¡Sp¯pÅ ImämSn aebn h¨p hnizmk¯n\pthWvSn shSntbäp acn¨p. emkÀ F¶ tZhklmbw]nÅsb 2012þ hmgv¯s¸«hcpsS KW¯nte¡v DbÀ¯n.

[\yÀ

1. A\kvXmknbqkv lmÀSvam³ HF^vFw Im¸v (1803þ1866)

t_mws_bpsSbpw ]mäv\bpsSbpw _nj¸mbncp¶ A\kvXmknbqkv lmÀSvam³ 1803 s^{_phcn 24 \v kznävkÀe³Unse AÂhnän P\n¨p. 1821  I¸q¨n³ k`bn {hXsaSp¯p. 1825 sk]väw_À 25 \p sshZnI\mbn. 1843þ anj\dnbmbn B{Kbnse¯n. 1845  ]mäv\bn A¸kvtXmenIv hnImcnbmbn. 1849  apws_bnte¡p amdn. 1855  sa{Xm³ Øm\w cmPnh¨p. h¯n¡m³ At±ls¯ s{]m¸Km´m ^osZbpsS D]tZiI\m¡n. 1860þ hoWvSpw ]mäv\ sa{Xm\m¡n. 1866 tabv H¶n\v A´cn¨p. 1998 Unkw_À 21 \v tPm¬ t]mÄ cWvSma³ amÀ]m¸ At±ls¯ [\y\mbn {]Jym]n¨p.

2 ^m. Hutdenb³ HknUn (1887þ1963)

kvs]bn\nse BÀ¨pWvSmK F¶ ]«W¯n 1887 Pq¬ 27 \v P\\w. s]t{Zm F¶mbncp¶p t]cv. 16þmas¯ hbkn IÀaeo¯ k`bn AwKambn. 1902 HmKÌv \men\p k`mhkv{Xw kzoIcn¨p. 1903 HmKÌv A©n\p {hXhmKvZm\w \S¯n. 1910 Unkw_À 17 \p sshZnI\mbn. 1912 sk]väw_À 12 \v C´ybnte¡p Xncn¨p. 1912 \hw_À 21 \v awKe¸pg skan\mcnbn A[ym]I\mbn tNÀ¶p. 1944  skan\mcn sdIvSdmbn. 1952  C´y³ ]uc\mbn. 1956  sdIvSÀ Øm\¯p \n¶p amdn. 1963 \hw_À 16 \v FdWmIpfw P\d Bip]{Xnbn acn¨p.

3. ^m. Bátem Unkqk (1869 þ1927)

1869 P\phcn 21 \p tKmhbnse ARvPphm\n P\n¨p. 1898 sk]väw_À 24 \v sshZnI\mbn. 10 hÀjw kphntij {]kwKI\mbn am{Xw {]hÀ¯n¨p. 1908þ ]oemÀ k`mwKambn. 1918  ssdt¡mÄ skan\mcnbn Bßob ]nXmhmbn \nbanX\mbn. 1927 \hw_À 11 \v A´cn¨p. 1986 \hw_À 10 \p tPm¬ t]mÄ cWvSma³ amÀ]m¸ At±ls¯ [\y\mbn {]Jym]n¨p.

4. _nj]v amÀ tXmakv Ipcymfticn (1873þ1921)

N§\mticn AXncq]XbpsS {]Ya sa{Xm\pw ZnhyImcpWy`ànbpsS {]NmcI\pw Bcm[\m k\ykn\o kaql¯nsâ Øm]I\pamb _nj]v amÀ tXmakv Ipcymfticn 1873 P\phcn 14 \p N¼¡pf¯v P\n¨p. tdmanse s{]m¸Km´ tImfPn ]Tn¨v 1899 tabv 27\p sshZnI\mbn. hnhn[ CShIIfn ip{ipj sNbvX At±lw 1908 Bcm[\ k` Øm]n¨p. 1911 Unkw_À aq¶n\p sa{Xm\mbn. 1925 Pq¬ cWvSn\p tdman \ncymX\mbn. 2011 G{]n cWvSn\p _\UnIvSv ]Xn\mdma³ amÀ]m¸ [\y\mbn {]Jym]n¨p.

5. ^m. amXyp IZfn¡m«n (1872þ 1966)

XncplrZb k\ymkn\n k`bpsS Øm]I\mb ^m. amXyp IZfn¡m«n ]mem cq]Xbnse CS¸mSnbn 1872 G{]n 25 \p P\n¨p. 1901 s^{_phcn 17 \p sshZnI\mbn. 1911 P\phcn H¶n\p XncplrZb k\ymkn\n k` Øm]n¨p. 1935 tabv 23 \p \ncymX\mbn. 2011 Pq¬ 27 \p _\UnIvSv ]Xn\mdma³ amÀ]m¸ At±ls¯ [\y\mbn {]Jym]n¨p.

6. knÌÀ s^ÀWmWvS dohm (1920þ1956)

ZoÀLImew Be¸pg skâv tPmk^vkv tImfPv {]n³kn¸embncp¶p Cu Cäen¡mcn. knÌÀ s^ÀWmWvS doh 1920 tabv H¶n\p P\n¨p. 1956 P\phcn 22 \v apw_bn acn¨p. 2012 Pq¬ 28 \p _\UnIvSv ]Xn\mdma³ amÀ]m¸ [\ycpsS KW¯n s]Sp¯n.

7. ^m. k¡dnbmkv HknUn (1887þ1957)

kvs]bn\nse A_Znbmt\mbn 1887 \hw_À A©n\p P\n¨ ^m. k¡dnbmkv 1903 HmKÌn IÀaeo¯ k`bn tNÀ¶p. 1911 Pqsse 11 \v sshZnI\mbn. 1912 \hw_À 20 \p ]p¯³ ]Ån skan\mcnbn (]n¶oSv awKe¸pg) A[ym]I\mbn. skan\mcntbmSp tNÀ¶p ap{Zmeb t{]jnX {]hÀ¯\¯n\mbn Fkv.F¨v. eoKv Bcw`n¡p¶Xn\p t\XrXzw sImSp¯p. 1957 tabv 22 \p acn¨p.

C´ybn \n¶pÅ ssZhZmkÀ ssZhZmkÀ

1. amÀ amXyp ImhpIm«v (1904þ64)
2. ^m. tIm¬Ìâv eohm³kv (1856þ1893)
3. ^m. sXtbm^n³ HF^vFw (1913þ68)
4. amÀ Cuhm\ntbmkv (1882þ1953)
5. aZÀ s]{S þ ]uf (1924 þ1976)
6. aZÀ Geoizm (1831 þ1913)
7. amÀ amXyp am¡o (1851þ 1914)
8. ]qX¯n sXm½nb¨³ (1873 þ1943)
9. tam¬. sdbvaWvSv {^m³knkv IanÃkv akvIdn\mkv (1875 þ1929 )
10. ^m. hÀKokv ]¿¸nÅn (1876 þ1929)
11. ^m. AKÌn³ tPm¬ Du¡³ (1880 þ1956)
12. tam¬. tPmk^v ]ªn¡mc³ (1888þ1949)
13. ^m. BâWn X¨p]d¼n (1894þ1963)
14. tam¬. temd³kv ]pfnb\w (1898 þ1961)
15.tam¬. dbvt\mÄUv ]pcbv¡Â (1910þ1986)
16. knÌÀ acnb sken³ I®\mbv¡Â (1931þ57)
17. ]p¯³]d¼n sXm½¨³ (1836 þ 1908)
18. HdsÌkv asc³tKm (1906þ98)
19. ^m.tIm¬Ìâot\m sh³{Umw (1893þ1957)
20. tPmk^v X¼n (1883þ1945)
21. knÌÀ dmWn acnb (1954þ95)
22. ^m. tPmk^v hnXb¯n (1865 þ1964)
23. _nj]v sÌ^mt\m s^dmtWvSm (1895þ1978)
24. ^m. {^m³sNkvtIm I¬shÀ«n\n FkvUn_n (1898þ1976)
25. aZÀ thtdm\n¡ Hm^v ]mj³ (1823þ1906)
26. {_ZÀ t^mÀ¯p\m¯qkv Xm³ tlmbvskÀ HF¨v
27. aZÀ tacn t¥mhvdn (1887þ1957)
28.X«n¸{Xn Úm\½ (1822þ 1874)

Xbmdm¡nbXvþ Sn. tZh{]kmZv


\maIcW¯nsâ ss\bmanI \S]SnIÄ

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It¯men¡m k`bn Hcp hyànsb hnip²\mbn {]Jym]n¡p¶Xp IÀ¡iamb ]cntim[\bv¡p tijamWv. hotcmNnXambn ss{IkvXh ]pWy§Ä A`ykn¨hsc¶p kwibmXoXambn sXfnbp¶hscbmWp hnip²cmbn {]Jym]n¡pI.

CXn\pÅ \S]SnIÄ HutZymKnIambn Bcw`n¡p¶tXmsS B hyànsb ssZhZmk³ F¶phnfn¡p¶p. ssZhZmks\¡pdn¨pÅ At\zjW§Ä¡pw ]T\§Ä¡pwtijw k` \nÀWbn¨ncn¡p¶ AfhptImepIÄ ]men¡s¸Sp¶hsc [\yÀ F¶p hnfn¡p¶p. [\ycmbn k` hnfn¡p¶hcpsS am[yØXbn Hcp AZv`pXw IqSn \S¶Xmbn imkv{Xobambn sXfnbn¡s¸Spt¼mgmWv Ahsc hmgv¯s¸«hcmbn DbÀ¯pI. hmgv¯s¸«hsâ a[yØXbn Hcp AZv`pXw IqSn kwibmXoXambn sXfnbpt¼mÄ k` At±ls¯ hnip²\mbn {]Jym]n¡p¶p.

hnip²\ma ]Zhn¡v AÀlXbpÅ hyànsb kw_Ôn¨v Bhiyamb At\zjWw \S¯n t_m[yamIp¶ ]£w _Ôs¸« cq]Xm sa{Xm³ AXp kw_Ôn¨pÅ At]£ h¯n¡m\p kaÀ¸n¡p¶p. XpSÀ¶mWp hnip²\ma ]Zhn¡mbn \nÀtZin¡s¸« hyànsb ssZhZmk\mbn cq]Xm[y£³ {]Jym]n¡p¶Xv.

ssZhZmks\ kw_Ôn¨v Bhiyamb ]T\§Ä tdmanse Imt\m\nI \S]SnIÄ¡mbpÅ XncpkwL¯n\p e`n¨pIgnbpt¼mÄ B hyànbn A\nXckm[mcWamb ]pWy§fpsWvS¶p t_m[yam¡nbtijw {]kvXpX hnhcw amÀ]m¸sb Adnbn¡p¶p. XpSÀ¶v B hyànsb [\y³ Bbn {]Jym]n¡p¶p. Cu ImeL«¯n {]kvXpX hyànbpsS \ma¯nepÅ Xncp\mÄ BtLmjtam aäp ]cky Bcm[\Itfm A\phZ\obaÃ. F¶mÂ, At±ls¯ hnip²\mbn {]Jym]n¡p¶Xn\mhiyamb {]mÀY\mbmN\IÄ s]mXpP\ka£w AhXcn¸n¡mhp¶XmWv.

ASp¯ L«w hmgv¯s¸«h\mbn {]Jym]n¡pIbmWv. {]kvXpX hyàn hnizmk¯n\pthWvSn càkm£nXzw hln¨XmsW¦n AXn\m¯s¶ B hyànbpsS hnizmkkm£yhpw kzÀK{]thihpw k` Dd¸m¡p¶p. F¶mÂ, km[mcWcoXnbn acn¨ hyànbmsW¦n At±l¯nsâ am[yØXbn \S¶ GsX¦nepsamcp AZv`pXw ØncoIcn¡s¸SWw. A{]Imcw ØncoIcWw \S¶pIgnbpt¼mÄ hmgv¯s¸«h³ F¶ {]Jym]\w \S¡p¶p. Cu AhØbn B hyànbpsS Xncp\mÄ, B hyànbpsS cq]XmXnÀ¯n¡pÅntem B hyàn Bbncp¶ {]tXyI kaql¯ntem BtLmjn¡m³ A\phmZapWvSv. F¶m At±l¯nsâ \ma¯n ]ÅnIÄ {]XnjvTn¡m³ ]mSnÃ.

XpSÀ¶phcp¶Xp hnip²]ZhnbmWv. Cu Xe¯nte¡v HcmÄ DbÀ¯s¸SWsa¦n cWvSv AZv`pXsa¦nepw B hyànbpsS CSs]SÂaqew \S¶Xmbn sXfnbn¡s¸SWw. A{]Imcw sXfnbn¡s¸Sp¶]£w hnip²]Zhnbnte¡pÅ {]Jym]\ambn.

\maIcWw sN¿s¸Sm\pÅ hyànbpsS am[yØyw aptJ\ Akm[mcWamb tcmKkuJytam hcZm\tam asämcmÄ¡p e`n¨Xmbn ØncoIcn¡s¸Spt¼mÄ AXns\ AZv`pXambn ]cnKWn¡p¶p. C{]Imcw \S¡p¶ AZv`pX§Ä km£ys¸Sp¯pIbpw Ah kq£vaamb ssZhimkv{X hnNn´\¯n\pw CXc imkv{Xob ]cntim[\bv¡pw hnt[bam¡pIbpw AtX¯pSÀ¶v AXnse Akm[mcWXzw Dd¸m¡pIbpw AXp ssZhnI CSs]SepIÄsImWvSp am{Xw kw`hn¨XmsW¶p t_m[yamhpIbpw thWw.

hnip²cpsS KW¯ntebv¡v Hcmsf DbÀ¯p¶tXmsS At±l¯nsâ \maw ]ckyBcm[\Ifn kvacn¡s¸Sp¶p. B hnip²sâ \ma¯n tZhmeb§fpw CXc Øm]\§fpw {]XnjvTn¡s¸Sp¶p. B hnip²sâ _lpam\mÀYw hnip² IpÀ_m\ AÀ¸n¡s¸Sp¶p. B hnip²sâ HmÀa¯ncp\mÄ k`bn BtLmjn¡p¶p. B hnip²sâ Nn{Xw hcbv¡pt¼mgpw cq]§Ä DWvSm¡pt¼mgpw hnip²nbpsS {]XoIambn inckn\p Npäpw Hcp {]Imihebw ASbmfs¸Sp¯p¶p. B hnip²sâ Xncptijn¸pIÄ¡p X¡Xmb hW¡w Xncpk`bn \ÂIp¶p.


d_dn\p `ojWnIÄ ]eXv

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tPmk^v hm¡bn / d_À shdpsamcp acaÃþ2

kzm`mhnI d_dnsâ DXv]mZ\¯n Ahkm\¡mcmsW¦nepw ssN\bmWv D]tbmK¯n H¶maXv. C´y DXv]mZ\¯n \memaXpw D]tbmK¯n cWvSmaXpamWv.

2012þ 113.27 e£w S¬ d_À DXv]mZn¸n¡s¸s«¦n 110.5 e£w S¬ am{XamWv D]tbmKn¡s¸«Xv. amÀ¡än 3.22 e£w S¬ d_À A[nIambn h¶p. Cu A[nIw 2014þ 6.52 e£w S¬ BsW¶mWv dnt¸mÀ«pIÄ ImWn¡p¶Xv. an¨ d_À 2014 HtÎm_À Bbt¸mtg¡v 2013 Unkw_dn IW¡m¡nbncp¶Xnepw 3.66 e£w S¬ (78 iXam\w) A[nIambn. temIhym]Iambn hml\ DXv]mZ\¯nepw hnÂ]\bnepapWvSmb Ipdh,v km¼¯nIamµyw aqew ssN\ ap¼t¯Xpt]mse d_À hm§n kw`cn¡mªXv, {IqUv Hmbnensâ hne¡pdhpaqew kn´änIv d_dnsâ DXv]mZ\w IqSn hne IpdªXv XpS§nbhbmWp kzm`mhnI d_dnsâ D]tbmKw Ipdbm\pÅ ImcW§fmbn NqWvSn¡mWn¡s¸Sp¶Xv.

Xmbve³Un d_Àhne Intem{Kman\v 97 cq]bnepw IpdhmWv. Cubhkcw apXseSp¯mWv 20 iXam\w \nIpXn sImSp¯pw C´y³ SbÀ I¼\nIÄ d_À hm§n¡q«p¶Xv. CXmcpw XSbpIbpanÃ.

tI{µ d_À\bw

d_dnsâ tZiobhpw A´ÀtZiobhpamb hne\nehmcs¯¡pdn¨v AdnhpsWvS¶v AhImis¸Sp¶ tI{µkÀ¡mÀ Hcp tZiob d_À\bw cq]oIcn¡p¶Xn\mbn Hcp hnZKv[kanXnsb PqWn cq]oIcn¨p. tI{µ hmWnPya{´n \nÀae koXmcma³ cmPyk`sb Adnbn¨Xv Cu kanXn d_dnsâ DXv]mZ\w, Bhiyw, hn]W\w, Cd¡paXn \nIpXn XpS§nb Imcy§sf¡pdn¨p ]Tn¨v IÀjIÀ¡pw hyhkmbnIÄ¡pw \·hcp¯p¶ coXnbnepÅ Hcp tZiob \bw cq]oIcn¡psa¶mWv. d_dnsâ hne \nÝbn¡s¸Sp¶Xp tZiobhpw A´ÀtZiobhpamb ]e LSI§fpsS ASnØm\¯nemsW¶mWp tI{µ \ne]mSv. cmPy¯n\Is¯ Bhiyhpw e`yXbpw, temIhn]Wnbnse Bhiyhpw e`yXbpw, kn´änIv d_dnsâ hnebpw e`yXbpw, ImemhØm hyXnbm\§Ä, hntZi\mWy hn\nab \nc¡pIÄ, Ah[n¨´bnse amä§Ä Chsbms¡bmWv C´ybnsebpw d_dnsâ hne \nb{´n¡p¶Xv. Chsbm¶pw kÀ¡mcnsâ \nb{´W¯neÃ. kÀ¡mÀ sN¿p¶Xv Cd¡paXn \nIpXnbn t\cnb hyXnbm\§Ä hcp¯p¶Xp am{Xw.

hmWnPya{´meb¯nse tXm«w taJebpsS hn`mK¯nse AUojW sk{I«dnbpsS t\XrXz¯nepÅ Cu kanXn Unkw_À 2014þ {]mYanI IcSv dnt¸mÀ«v kaÀ¸n¡psa¶mWv Adnbn¨ncn¡p¶Xv.

kwØm\ d_Àkw`cWw

kwØm\ kÀ¡mÀ d_À Hcp \nÝnX hnebv¡p kw`cn¡p¶XpsImWvSp {]iv\§Ä ]cnlcn¡s¸Spsa¶p tXm¶p¶nÃ. amÀ¡äv hnetb¡mÄ A©pcq] Iq«n kw`cn¡p¶pWvSv. IÀjIÀ¡v AXnepw XmXv]cyanÃ. AhcpsS {]Xo£ 150 cq]bv¡p apIfnemWv.

D]tbmKn¡m³ I¼\nItfm hn¡m³ hn]Wntbm CÃmsX kw`cn¡p¶ d_À kÀ¡mÀ F´psN¿pw? kwØm\¯v DXv]mZ\w IpdhpÅ amk§fn d_À amÀ¡änse¯n¨mepw 100 cq]bn Xmsg hnebpÅ hntZi d_dnt\mSp aÕcn¡m³ AXn\p IgnbmsXhcpw. KXy´canÃmsX amÀ¡änte¡p XÅnhn«m d_Àhne hoWvSpw Xmgv¶pt]mIpw. IÀjIs\ klmbn¡m³ kÀ¡mÀ aäp hgnIÄ tXSp¶XmWp \ÃXv.

\qX\ D]tbmK§Ä

d_dnsâ \qX\ D]tbmK§fn {][m\ambpÅXp tdmUv d_ssdtkj³ BWv. Xnf¨ Smdn Afhnsâ 2þ4 iXam\w d_À]mepw Hcp iXam\w as®®bpw tNÀ¯p \nÀan¡p¶ d_ÀSmÀ Ct¸mgpw {]Nmc¯nembn«nÃ. 1974þ Fw.kn. tdmUn Hcp IntemaoäÀ tdmUv d_ssdkv sNbvXv AXnsâ {]mtbmKnIX sXfnbn¡s¸«XmWv. ]n¶oSv 1999þ sIm¨n dnss^\dn 15,000 S¬ hmÀjnItijnbpÅ Hcp d_ÀSmÀ ¹mâv \nÀan¨p. d_À tdmUn\v 15þ20 iXam\w A[nIs¨ehv hcpsa¦nepw tdmUnsâ \ne\nev]nepw KpW\nehmc¯nepw 50 iXam\w hÀ[\bpWvSmhpw. tdmUv ]cn]me\s¨ehn 35 iXam\whsc IpdhpWvSmIpw. tdmUv \ÃXmbXpsImWvSp hml\§fpsS CÔ\s¨ehnepw KWyamb IpdhpWvSmIpw. A§s\ A[nIs¨ehv Ipdª Ime¯n hosWvSSp¡m\mhpw.

tdmUv AäIpä¸WnbnÃmsX \oWvSImew \n¶m ]eÀ¡pw In«mhp¶ em`§Ä \jvSamhpsa¶ `bamWv tdmUv d_ssdtkj³ ]²XnbpsS hgn XSbp¶sX¶v ]cs¡ Bt£]apWvSv. d_À tdmUpWvSmbmepw AXp d_dnsâ hnesb F´pam{Xw KpWIcambn kzm[o\n¡psa¶p \nÝbanÃ. F¦nepw \m«n \à tdmUpWvStÃm F¶Xv BizmkIcamIpw.

apt¶m«pÅ hgn

d_À hnebnSnhn \SpshmSnªp ap«pIp¯nbncn¡p¶ d_ÀIÀjI\p apt¶m«pÅ hgn F´mWv? temI ØnXnKXnIÄ {]XnIqeamWv. tI{µ kÀ¡mÀ FÃm {]iv\§fpw Hcp hnZKv[kanXnsb GÂ]n¨pIgnªp. tIcfkÀ¡mÀ ]eXpw sN¿m³ B{Kln¡p¶pWvSv. F¦nepw H¶pw ^e{]ZaÃ. Hcp ZqjnX heb¯n s]«ncn¡p¶ IÀjI³ F´psN¿pw?

kachpw kwKahpw \nthZ\hpw H¶pw XXvImew ^e{]ZamhpIbnÃ. F¦nepw apt¶m«pÅ hgn IsWvS¯Ww. Ct¸mgpw tI{µþ tIcf kÀ¡mcpIÄ¡p ]eXpw sN¿m³ km[n¡pw. AXn\pthWvS P\Iob, cmjv{Sob k½ÀZ§Ä sNep¯m³ {ian¡mhp¶XmWv.

1. d_À `£yhnfbÃm¯XpsImWvSp tI{µ Xm§phne {]Xo£n¡mhp¶XÃ. F¦nepw hymhkmbnI AkwkvIrX hkvXp¡Ä¡pthWvSnbpÅ Hcp hneØncXm ^WvSv cq]oIcn¡m\pÅ \S]SnIÄ tI{µkÀ¡mÀ ssIs¡mÅWw.

2. d_À \Sp¶Xn\pw ]cn]men¡p¶Xn\pw thWvS XpI k_vknUnbmbn e`yam¡Ww.

3. d_À IÀjI, sXmgnemfn t£a\n[n tI{µþ kwØm\ kÀ¡mcpIÄ kwbpàambn \S¸m¡Ww. sNdpInS IÀjIÀ¡pw d_Àsh«v sXmgnemfnIÄ¡pw d_À DXv]mZ\w CÃm¯ amk§fn km¼¯nIklmbw \ÂIWw.

4. d_dnsâ DXv]mZ\s¨ehv Ipdbv¡Ww. Ct¸mgs¯ hnebpsS ASnØm\¯n d_À sh«p¶Xn\pÅ an\naw Iqen \nÝbn¡Ww. BknU vt]mepÅ AkwkvIrX hkvXp¡Ä Ipdª hnebv¡p e`yam¡Ww.

5. IÀjIÀ d_dns\ am{Xw B{ibn¡p¶, d_À am{Xw IrjnsN¿p¶, coXn amäWw. DÅ Øe¯p aäp hnfIÄIqSn IrjnsN¿Ww.

(Ahkm\n¨p)






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