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IpSpw_¯n\mbn kn\Uv

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_nj]v amÀ sk_mÌy³ FSb{´¯v (sNbÀam³, sIkn_nkn ^manen I½oj³)

B[p\nI IpSpw_§Ä t\cnSp¶ \nch[n shÃphnfnIÄ¡p ^e{]Zamb AP]me\kao]\w Icp¸nSn¸n¡pI F¶ e£yt¯msS It¯men¡mk`bpsS aq¶mas¯ Akm[mcW kn\Un\v Cuamkw A©n\p h¯n¡m\n XpS¡w Ipdn¡pIbmWv. Cuamkw 19 hsc \oWvSp\nev¡p¶ Cu kn\Uv 2015þ \S¡p¶ km[mcW kn\Un\v Hcp¡ambn«mWp hn`mh\ sNbvXn«pÅXv. cWvSpwIqSn Hä kn\Umbn ]cnKWn¡pw.

cWvSp kn\UpIfpsSbpw hnjbw IpSpw_ambncn¡psa¶p {^m³kokv amÀ]m¸m 2013 HIvtSm_dn {]Jym]n¡pIbpWvSmbn: 1. IpSpw_¯nsâ AP]me\w t\cnSp¶ shÃphnfnIÄ (2014). 2. IpSpw_¯nsâ clkyhpw hnfnbpw tbip{InkvXp shfns¸Sp¯p¶p (2015). temIsa¼mSpapÅ It¯men¡m hyànKXk`IfpsSbpw tZiob sa{Xm³kanXnIfpsSbpw tdma³ IqcnbbpsSbpw Xeh·mcpw amÀ]m¸ \nÀtZin¡p¶ hyànIfpamWv Akm[mcW kn\Un ]s¦Sp¡p¶Xv.

sa{Xm·mcpsS kn\Uv

cWvSmw h¯n¡m³ Iu¬knensâ \nÀtZi{]Imcw Bdmw ]utemkv amÀ]m¸bmWp sa{Xm·mcpsS kn\Un\v 1965 sk]väw_À 15þ\p cq]w\evInbXv. k`sb apgph³ kw_Ôn¡p¶ ASnb´c {]m[m\yapÅ hnjb§Ä Bg¯n NÀ¨sNbvXp amÀ]m¸mbv¡v D]tZiw \evIpI F¶XmWp kn\Unsâ e£yw. kn\Un\mbn Hcp Øncw s]mXp sk{I«dntbäv tdman {]hÀ¯n¡p¶p. amÀ]m¸, sa{Xm³kwLw, sa{Xm·mcpsS kn\Uv F¶o {Ia¯nemWp Im\³\nbaw k`bnse A[nImcs¯ AhXcn¸n¡p¶Xv. k`bv¡p ]pXnb DuÀPw \evIm\pw ]p¯³ apt¶ä§Ä¡p cq]w \evIm\pw kn\Uv CSbm¡psa¶mWp {]Xo£.

aq¶pXc¯nepÅ kn\U kt½f\§fpWvSv. 1. km[mcW kn\Uv. ]Xn½q¶p km[mcW kn\UpIÄ CXnt\mSIw \S¶pIgnªp. 2. Akm[mcW kn\Uv (1969þepw 1985þepw \S¶p). 3. {]tXyI kn\Uv. Ah {]tXyI `q{]tZi§Ä¡p thWvSn \S¯s¸Sp¶p. (B{^n¡ þcWvSp {]mhiyw, Atacn¡, Gjy, bqtdm¸v þcWvSp {]mhiyw, Hmjym\ F¶o `qJWvU§Ä¡p thWvSnbpw a[y]qÀhtZiw, e_\³, s\XÀe³Uvkv F¶nhbv¡pthWvSnbpw kn\Uv kwLSn¸n¡s¸«n«pWvSv.

{]hÀ¯\tcJ

kn\Uv sk{I«dntbäv Cu Akm[mcW kn\Un\p thWvSn 2013 \hw_dn¯s¶ Hcp ]T\tcJ (eo\bsa´m) temIsa§papÅ sa{Xm³kwL§fnte¡pw hyànKXk`IfpsS tI{µ§fnte¡pw cq]XIfnte¡pw Ab¨psImSp¯ncp¶p, C¶p IpSpw_w t\cnSp¶ shÃphnfnIÄ Ghsb¶v Adnbm³ klmbn¡p¶ 37 tNmZy§Ä F«p KW§fmbn Xncn¨v AXn DÄs¸Sp¯nbncp¶p. A§s\ In«nb D¯c§fpw \nÀtZi§fpw t{ImUoIcn¨p kn\Uv NÀ¨ sNt¿WvS {]hÀ¯\tcJ kn\U sk{I«dntbäv 2014 Pq¬ 26þ\p {]kn²oIcn¨p.

{]hÀ¯\tcJbpsS H¶mw`mKw IpSpw_kphntijs¯¡pdn¨pÅXmWv. ss__nfnepw k`bpsS {]t_m[\tcJIfnepw shfns¸Sp¶ ssZhnI]²Xnbpw {InkvXphn hyànIÄ¡pÅ ssZhhnfnbpw {]IrXn\nbahpw hnizmknIÄ F{Xam{Xw AdnbpIbpw kzoIcn¡pIbpw sNbvXncn¡p¶psh¶v ChnsS hniZoIcn¨ncn¡p¶p. hnizmknIÄ¡v Chsb¸än thWvS{X Adnhnsö \nKa\amWp tcJ \evIp¶Xv. AXn\mÂ, Ah ]Tn¸n¡m\pÅ IÀa]²XnIÄ cq]hXvIcn¡pI AXymhiyamsW¶p NqWvSn¡m«nbn«pWvSv. k`m{]t_m[\w icnbmbn Adnªm hnhml¯nsâbpw IpSpw_¯nsâbpw B[nImcnIhpw am\pjnIhpw ss{IkvXhnIhpamb kuµcyw hnizmknIÄ kzoIcn¡psa¶pw ]dªncn¡p¶p.

{]bmkw \ndª kmlNcy§fpw {]iv\§fpw

IpSpw_¯nsâ AP]me\w t\cnSp¶ {]bmkw \ndª kmlNcy§fpw {]iv\§fpamWp {]hÀ¯\tcJbpsS cWvSmw`mKw hniZambn NÀ¨ sN¿p¶Xv. C¶s¯ kwkvImcw k`bpsS {]t_m[\w kzoIcn¡p¶Xn\p XSkamIp¶pWvSv. bYmÀY ss{IkvXh hnizmk¯nsâ A\p`hanÃmbva, k`bpsS {]t_m[\¯n \n¶p hyXykvXamb kmaqlnIþkmwkvImcnI \ne]mSpIÄ, ]pXnb kmt¦XnIhnZyIÄ, kmaqlnI k¼À¡am[ya§fpsS kzm[o\w, kpJhmZ]camb kwkvImcw, Bt]£nIXmhmZw, hyànKXat\m`mhw, `uXnIXmhmZw, ss\anjnIXbpsS kwkvImcw, hens¨dnbensâ kwkvImcw, \ncoizchmZw F¶nh C¶p {]_eamWv. AXn\m k` Xsâ {]t_m[\w ssIamdm³ ]pXnb hgnIÄ tXSWw. AP]me\{]hÀ¯Isc ]cnioen¸n¡Ww. A¡mZanIv skâdpIÄ Øm]n¡Ww. hnhml¯n\mbn bphXobphm¡·msc \¶mbn Hcp¡Ww. amXm]nXm¡·mcpsS km£y¯neqsS \S¡p¶ aXt_m[\{]{Inbbv¡v Du¶Â \evIWw. AXn\pÅ IÀa]cn]mSnIÄ Bkq{XWw sN¿Ww. IpSpw_Iq«mbvaIfpw {]Øm\§fpw Øm]n¨v IpSpw_§Ä ]ckv]cw klmbn¡pIbpw ]n³Xm§pIbpw thWw.

hnizmkkw_Ôamb hnjaØnXn, _豈 \ne\nÀ¯m\pw Bibhn\nabw \S¯m\papÅ {]bmkw, ]nXmhnsâ kvt\lw e`n¡m¯ AhØ, hnhmltamN\hpw thÀs]Sepw, amXm]nXm¡·mcn HcmÄ am{XapÅ AhØ, \nba]caÃm¯ hnhml§Ä, _lp`mcymXzw, Poht\mSp Xpdhn CÃm¯ at\m`mhw, KÀ`Ñn{Zw, KÀ`\ntcm[\ at\m`mhw, am\knIþimcocnIþssewKnI A{Iahpw Zpcp]tbmKhpw, ]W¯n\v AanX{]m[m\yw, ssewKnI AcmPIXzw, am[ya§fpsS \ntj[mßIkzm[o\w, AanXambn `mcs¸Sp¯p¶ sXmgnÂkmlNcy§Ä, IpSntbäw, Zmcn{ZyapÅ IpSpw_§Ä, D]t`mKkwkvImcw, [mcmfn¯ssien, IpSpw_hpw kaqlhpw Ip«nIfpsSta hbv¡p¶ AanX{]Xo£IÄ F¶nh IpSpw_¯nsâ AP]me\w t\cnSp¶ {]iv\§fmWv.

{]XnkÔnbnembncn¡p¶ IpSpw_§Ä¡p {]tXyIw IÀa]cn]mSnIÄ Bkq{XWw sNbvXp k`bpsS AP]me\w DuÀPnXam¡Wsa¶p tcJ \nÀtZin¡p¶p. IcpWbpw \nc´camb ]cnKW\bpw A\pKa\hpw k` {]ISam¡Ww. A§s\ {i²nt¡WvS kmlNcy§fmWp NphsS tNÀ¡p¶Xv: IqSn¯makw, bp²w aqew A\ycmPy¯v A`bw tXtSWvSnhcp¶ IpSpw_§Ä, aXhyXymkapÅ hnhml§Ä, imcocnIþam\knItcmK§ÄsImWvSp hebp¶ IpSpw_§Ä, AwK§fpsS acWwsImWvSp hnjan¡p¶ IpSpw_§Ä, P\\\nc¡p IpdbÂ, skIvSpIfpsS hym]\w, \nKqVclkym`yk\w þ KqVhnZy þ amPnIv, a{´hmZw F¶nh \S¯p¶ IpSpw_§Ä, thÀ]ncnªhÀ, hnhmltamN\w t\SnbhÀ, hnhmltamN\w t\Sn ]p\Àhnhmlw sNbvXhÀ, {]mb]qÀ¯nbmIm¯ A½amÀ, kzhÀK_Ôhpw Ip«nIsf Zs¯Sp¡epw.

apIfn¸dª {]iv\§Ä tIcfs¯ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw A{X cq£asænepw AhsbÃmwXs¶ ChnsSbpw Act§dn XpS§nbn«pWvSv. \½psS \m«nse Nne {]iv\§Ä \mw IWvSnsöp \Sn¡cpXv. KmÀlnI]oU\§Ä, aZy]m\w, ab¡pacp¶v D]tbmKw, A{Iaw, AhKW\ F¶nhbpÅ IpSpw_§fn apdnhpIÄ DW¡m\pw {]iv\§Ä CÃmbva sN¿m\pw thWvS kwhn[m\§sf¸än Kuch]qÀhw ]cnNn´n¡Ww. IpSpw_w kzImcyhXvIcn¡s¸Sp¶Xp icnbÃ. s]mXp\·sb¡pdn¨pÅ t_m[hpw H¶n¨p Pohn¡p¶Xnsâ \·bpw IpSpw_w A\p`hn¡m³ CSbmIWw.

Poht\mSpÅ Xpdhn

Poht\mSpÅ Xpdhnbpw Ip«nIsf hfÀ¯p¶Xn amXm]nXm¡·mÀ¡pÅ D¯chmZnXzhpw AXp t\cnSp¶ {]bmkw \ndª AP]me\hpw tcJbpsS aq¶mw `mKw NÀ¨sN¿p¶p. aX\nct]£amb C¶s¯ kaqlw Pohs\bpw ssewKnIXsbbpw Ipdn¨pÅ k`bpsS {]t_m[\w kzoIcn¡m³ aSn¡pIbmWv. F¦nepw, k`bv¡p kzm`mhnIhpw kphntij]chpamb apgph³ [mÀanIXbpw ZrVambn {]tLmjn¡mXncn¡m³ ]änÃ. Zm¼Xykvt\lhpw {]P\\hpw X½nepÅ At`Zy_Ô¯nemWp k` Xsâ {]t_m[\w ASnbpd¸n¨ncn¡p¶Xv.

KÀ`\ntcm[\ at\m`mhhpw a\pjys\¡pdn¨pÅ hyànhmZ]camb ho£WhpamWv C¶p hym]IamIp¶Xv. {]IrXnbpsS hkvXp\njvT{Iat¯mSpw kmÀh{XnI\nbat¯mSpw _Ôs¸Sp¯msX XoÀ¯pw hyàn]camb tXm¶epIÄ¡pw hnImc§Ä¡pw henb aqeyw Iev]n¡p¶Xv C¶nsâ Hcp {]tXyIXbmWv. a\pjykzmX{´y¯nsâ kzbw`cWmhImi¯n\p {]mapJyw \evIp¶p. FÃmw hyàn\njvTambn hnebncp¯s¸Sp¶p. kzhÀKcXn, Ir{XnaPothmXv]mZ\w, KÀ`Ñn{Zw, ssewKnIXsb Pohimkv{X]cXbnÂ\n¶p thÀs]Sp¯n kmaqlnIhyhØnXnbpsSbpw Bhiy§fpsSbpw DXv]¶ambn am{Xw ImW F¶nh AXnsâ ]cnWX^eamWv. P\\\nc¡v Ipdbm\pw AXv CSbm¡p¶pWvSv. F¶mÂ, P\kwJy Ipdbp¶Xnsâ ({]tXyIn¨pw hnIknXcmPy§fnÂ) am\pjnIhpw kmaqlnIhpamb ]cnWX^e§Ä hkvXp\njvTambn ]cnKWn¡p¶nà F¶XmWp timN\obw. AXp `mhn tim`\am¡pIbnÃ. \nehnencn¡p¶ kmaqlnIhpw sXmgnÂ]chpamb kmlNcy§Ä Poht\mSpÅ Xpdhn t{]mÕmln¸n¡p¶XpaÃ. Chbvs¡ms¡ amäapWvSmIpI BhiyamWv.

C¶p \nÀan¡s¸Sp¶ ]e \nba§fpw icnbmsW¶v BfpIÄ IcpXp¶p (ss\bmanI t]mknänhnkw). kvt\lapÅnSt¯mfw Imew sshhmlnI_Ôw F¶ \ne]mSv DWvSmIp¶p. {]IrXn\nbas¯¡pdn¨p icnbmb [mcW CÃm¯XmWv CXn\p ImcWw. AXp kvt\lw, ssewKnIX, k´mt\mXv]mZ\w F¶nh X½nepÅ _Ôw CÃmXm¡pw. ssewKnI[mÀanIXsb¡pdn¨pÅ k`bpsS {]t_m[\w a\knem¡m³ C¶p ]eÀ¡pw Ignbm¯Xnsâ ImcWhpw CXmWv. CXnsâ ^eambn hnhmltamN\w, KÀ`\ntcm[\w, Ir{XnaPothmXv]mZ\w, kzhÀKcXn, _lp`mcymXzw, iniphnhmlw, cà_Ô¯nÂs¸«hÀ X½nepÅ ssewKnI_Ôw, an{iIpSpw_§Ä, Hcp c£nXmhv am{XapÅ IpSpw_§Ä, _lphyànsFIy§Ä F¶nh DWvSmIp¶p.

Ip«nIsf hfÀ¯p¶ Imcy¯nepw IpSpw_§Ä C¶v Gsd shÃphnfnIÄ t\cnSp¶pWvSv. hnZym`ymkw C¶p IpSpw_¯nÂ\n¶v A\yhXvIcn¡s¸Sp¶p. IpSpw_s¯ At]£n¨v kvIqfpw am[ya§fpw Iq«pImcpsams¡bmWp Ip«nIsf kzm[o\n¡p¶Xv. IpSpw_§fpw hnZymeb§fpw ss{IkvXhkaqlhpw H¶ptNÀ¶v hnZym`ymkw \evInbmte Ip«nIfpsS ka{K\· Dd¸mIq. hnZym`ymk¯n\p amXm]nXm¡·mcpsS \à amXrI ]ca{][m\amWv. {IaclnX IpSpw_§Ä s]cpIp¶nS¯v Cu amXrI CÃmXmIp¶p. k` Pm{KXtbmsS {]hÀ¯n¨mte, CXn\p {]Xnhn[n DWvSmIq.

IpSpw_¯nsâ FÃm hi§fpw NÀ¨sN¿pw

kn\Uns\¡pdn¨p aoUnb Gsd {]Ncn¸n¨Xp hnhml_Ôw thÀs]Sp¯n ]p\Àhnhmlw sNbvXhÀ¡p hnip² IpÀ_m\ kzoIcn¡m³ kn\Uv CSbm¡psa¶mWv. F¶mÂ, kn\Unsâ sk{I«dn P\d IÀZn\mÄ _mÂZntkcn ]dªp: k` Xsâ {]t_m[\§tfmSp tNÀ¶pt]mIp¶ ]cnlmc§fmWp IsWvSt¯WvSXv. im´hpw A\pcRvPnXhpamb Hcp PohnXw \bn¡m³ CSbmIp¶XpamIWw B ]cnlmcw. kn\Uv Hcp hnjb¯n am{Xw tI{µoIcn¡msX hnhmlwþIpSpw_w F¶nhbpsS hnhn[ hi§Ä NÀ¨ sN¿pw. ImcWw, FÃm hnjb§Ä¡pw Xpey{]m[m\yw \evInbmte P\§Ä¡p k` \à ip{iqj ImgvNhbv¡pIbpÅq.

IpSpw_w Aaqeyk¼¯v

ss{IkvXhsc kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw hnhmlhpw IpSpw_hpw Aaqeyk¼¯mWv. a\pjyhÀK¯nsâ \·bmWv. Pohsâ t]mjWthZnbpw a\pjyXz¯nsâ ]T\¡fcnbpamWv; a\pjysâ clkyhpw hnfnbpw Ah\p {InkvXp shfnhm¡p¶ khntijm\pIqeyapÅ Øm\hpamWv. kmtlmZcyw, kXykÔX, kXyw, XeapdIÄ X½n BZcw, sFIyZmÀVyw, Bibhn\nabw, kv{XobpsSbpw ]pcpjsâbpw alXzw hfÀ¯Â XpS§nb aqey§Ä t]mjn¸n¡s¸Sp¶Xp {]mYanI a\pjykaqlamb IpSpw_¯nemWv. AhsbÃmw Ac¡n«pd¸n¡m³ kn\Uv CSbm¡psa¶Xn ]£m´canÃ.


KmÔnamÀK¯n\p {]kàntbdp¶p

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tPm¬ h«then

C¶p KmÔnPb´n. {_n«ojpImcnÂ\n¶v Alnwkm kac¯neqsS C´ybv¡p kzmX{´yw t\Sn¯¶ almXvamhnsâ P·Zn\w. aäp t\Xm¡fnÂ\n¶v Gsd hyXykvX\mbncp¶p KmÔnPn. cmjv{Sobs¯¡pdn¨pw kXyw, Alnwk XpS§nb aqey§sf¡pdn¨psams¡ KmÔnPn¡p X\Xmb ImgvN¸mSpIÄ DWvSmbncp¶p.

Hmtcmcp¯cpsSbpw DÅnepÅ i_vZw F´mtWm hnfn¨p]dbp¶Xv AXmWp kXyw F¶mWp KmÔnPn hnizkn¨ncp¶Xv. a\kpsImWvSpw hm¡psImWvSpw {]hr¯nsImWvSpw Poh\pÅ H¶ns\bpw apdns¸Sp¯mXncn¡p¶XmWv Alnwksb¶mWp KmÔnPnbpsS \nÀhN\w. Alnwk a\pjy³ ]ment¡WvS \nbahpw lnwk arK¯nsâ \nbahpamWv. Alnwk F¶Xp ZpÀ_ecpsSbpw `ocp¡fpsSbpw Bbp[aÃ, adn¨v [occpsSbpw iàcpsSbpw AXniàamb Bbp[amsW¶p KmÔnPn ]Tn¸n¨p. hfsc CSp§nbXmWp kXy¯nsâbpw AlnwkbpsSbpw amÀKw. KmÔnamÀK¯nsâ {]kàn C¶pw \jvSs¸«n«nÃ.

e£ys¯¡pdn¨pw AXp t\Sm³ D]tbmKn¡p¶ amÀKs¯¡pdn¨pw hyàamb ImgvN¸mSv KmÔnPn¡pWvSmbncp¶p. e£yhpw amÀKhpw Hcpt]mse \¶mbncn¡Wsa¶mWv At±l¯nsâ ]£w.

kmaqlyamä¯n\pÅ Gähpw ^e{]Zamb D]IcWambn KmÔnPn kXy{Kls¯ IsWvS¯n. Nn´miànbpw PohnXhnip²nbpw {]hÀ¯\tijnbpw kaÀ¸Wt_m[hpw kXy{Kln¡p ssIapXembn DWvSmbncn¡Ww. \ymbamb Imcy¯n\pthWvSn am{Xta kXy{Klw \S¯m³ ]mSpÅq. A\ymbamb Hcp Imcyw t\Sm\pw kXy{Kls¯ B{ibn¨pIqSm. sXsä¶p ImWp¶ H¶n\pw kXy{Kln hg§ns¡mSp¡m³ ]mSnÃ. Fs´Ãmw {]tIm]\§fpWvSmbmepwkXy{Kln im´X ssIhnScpXv. AbmÄ Xn·sb FXnÀ¡Ww. ]t£ Xn· sN¿p¶hs\ shdp¡m³]mSnÃ.

kXy{Klw \S¯p¶hÀ e£yw t\Sp¶Xphsc kacw sN¿m³ ZrVNn¯cmbncn¡pIbpw AXn\pthWvSn F´p IjvShpw A\p`hn¡m³ k¶²cmbncn¡pIbpw thWw. F¦n am{Xta B kXy{Klw e£y{]m]vXnbnse¯pIbpÅq. kXy{Klw HcpXc¯nepw lnwkbv¡p Øm\w \ÂIp¶nÃ. kXy{KlnbpsS iàamb Bbp[amWv D]hmkw. ImbnItijnbpÅ FÃmhÀ¡pw D]hmkw A\pjvTn¡m³ km[n¡pIbnsö hkvXpX KmÔnPn HmÀan¸n¡p¶p.

km¼¯nIkaXzwsImWvSp am{Xta bYmÀY kzmX{´yw \ap¡p e`n¡pIbpÅq. ]mhs¸«h\pw k¼¶\pw X½nepÅ A´cw amdm¯nSt¯mfwImew bYmÀY kzmX{´yw t\Sm³ IgnbnÃ. kzmX{´yw Xmtg¯«nÂ\n¶pXs¶ Bcw`n¡Ww. AXn\v Hmtcm {Kmahpw kzbw]cym]vXambn amdWw. C´y \in¡mXncn¡Wsa¦n {Kma§Ä \in¡mXncn¡Wsa¶mWp KmÔnPn Hcn¡Â A`n{]mbs¸«Xv.

Hmtcm hoSpw Hmtcm hnZymebamWv. amXm]nXm¡fmWv AhnSs¯ A[ym]IÀ. hnZymÀYnIÄ kzbw Nn´n¡m\pw {]hr¯n¡m\pw A¨S¡hpw A\pkcWhpw DÅhcmIm\pw ]Tn¡Ww. AhÀ shdpw A\pIcWob¡mÀ BIcpXv. hnZymÀYnIÄ¡p I£ncmjv{Sobw thWvS F¶ ]£¡mc\mbncp¶p KmÔnPn. AtXkabw FÃm cmjv{SobI£nIfpw ]dbp¶Xp a\knem¡p¶hcmIWw. AXpt]mse FÃm¯cw {KÙ§Ä hmbn¡p¶hcpw BIWw. kXyw am{Xw {Kln¡p¶hcmIm³ {i²n¡Ww.

sXm«pIqSm¯hcmbn Bcpw P\n¡p¶nÃ. \nba¯nsâ _ewsImWvSp am{Xw Abn¯w CÃmbva sN¿m³ km[n¡nÃ. KmÔnPnbpsS A`n{]mb¯n Abn¯w ssZht¯mSpw a\pjyt\mSpw sN¿p¶ XnIª A]cm[amWv. AXp a\knem¡n AXns\¡pdn¨p eÖn¡m³ XpS§nbmte Abn¯w CÃmXmIq.

aZy¯n\pw FXncmbncp¶p KmÔnPn. aZy]m\w Hcp cmjv{S¯n\v \miaÃmsX asäm¶pw t\Sns¡mSp¡pIbnsöv At±lw DZvt_m[n¸n¨p. P\§fpsS aZy]m\ioewsImWvSp ]e cmPy§fpw \in¨Xmbn Ncn{X¯n ImWmw. am\yamb PohnXw e`n¡Wsa¦n aZy]m\w F¶ Xn·sb FÃmhcpw hÀPn¡Wsa¶mWp KmÔnPnbpsS A`n{]mbw. KmÔnPnbpsS {]hÀ¯\§fpsSbpw Nn´IfpsSbpw DuÀPt{kmXkv {]mÀY\bmbncp¶p.

1869 HtÎm_À cWvSn\p P\n¡pIbpw 1948 P\phcn 30 hsc kw`h_lpeamb PohnXw \bn¡pIbpw sNbvX Cu almXvamhns\ Ccp]Xmw \qämWvSnsâ {]hmNI³ F¶mWv Atacn¡bnse Kbn³kv _tdm \nÀan¨ Hcp tUmIypsaâdnbn hntijn¸n¨Xv. KmÔnamÀK¯n Dd¨p\n¶m a\pjycmin C¶p t\cnSp¶ H«pan¡ {]iv\§Ä¡pw ]cnlmcw IsWvS¯m³ km[n¡pw.


A^vKm³ `cWw amdpt¼mÄ

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temIhnNmcw / skÀPn BâWn

A^vKm\nØm\n A[nImc ssIamäambn. hnhmZ§fpw ]cmXnIfpw [mcmfapWvSmb Hcp sXcsªSp¸n\ptijw ]pXnb tZiob kÀ¡mÀ Xn¦fmgvN A[nImctaäp. {]knUân\p ]pdta ]pXnsbmcp XkvXnIbpw kÀ¡mÀ kwhn[m\¯n hcp¶p. cmPy¯nsâ No^v FIvknIyq«ohv Hm^okÀ XkvXnIbmWnXv. ^e¯n {][m\a{´nbpsS Øm\w. cmjv{S`cWhpw Hcp I¼\n¡mcyambn amdp¶Xnsâ `mKamImw Cu knCH \nba\w.

A[nImcsamgnbp¶ A^vKm³ {]knUâv laoZv IÀkmbn¡v Atacn¡tbmSp ]gb B`napJyanÃ. F¶mÂ, A[nImc¯nte¡p hcp¶ ]pXnb {]knUâv Ajvd^v Km\n hfsc apt¼Xs¶ Atacn¡bpsS kJy¯n\mbn Icp¡Ä \o¡n¯pS§nbncp¶p. A[nImctaäXnsâ ASp¯ZnhkwXs¶ Atacn¡bpambn kpc£mIcmdn H¸nSm\pw Ajvd^v Km\n Xbmdmbn. ap³ {]knUâv laoZv IÀkmbn Cu Icmdn H¸nSm³ hnk½Xn¨ncp¶p.

cmPy`cWw apt¶m«psImWvSpt]mIWsa¦n Atacn¡bpsS klmbw A\nhmcyamsW¶v Ajvd^v Km\n¡p \¶mbdnbmw. Imenbmb JP\mhpambmWp IÀkmbn {]knUânsâ sIm«mcw hnSp¶Xv. Cu amkw i¼fw sImSp¡m³t]mepw _p²nap«pw. ASnb´cambn Ipsd ]Ww X¶p klmbn¡Wsa¶p Ajvd^v Km\n Atacn¡tbmSv Bhiys¸«n«pWvSv.

hnShm§Â{]kwK¯n {]knUâv IÀkmbn Atacn¡sb AXn\ninXambn hnaÀin¡pIbpWvSmbn. Atacn¡bpsS Xmen_m³hncp² t]mcm«w AhcpsS kz´w t\«¯n\pthWvSn am{XamsW¶pw A^vKm\nØm\n kam[m\w DWvSmIm¯Xn\p ImcWw Atacn¡ AXv B{Kln¡m¯XpsImWvSmsW¶pwhsc hnShm§Â {]kwK¯n IÀkmbn ]dªph¨p. bp²w A^vKm³ImÀ¡p thWvSnbpÅXmbncp¶nsöpw hntZinIfpsS Nne e£y§Ä¡p thWvSnbmbncp¶psh¶pw IÀkmbn ]dbp¶p.

A^vKm\nØm\n Atacn¡bpw ]m¡nØm\pw tNÀ¶p \S¯nb cmjv{Sob¡fnIsfbpw IÀkmbn \ninXambn hnaÀin¡p¶pWvSv. A^vKm\nØmsâ hntZi\bw X§fpsS Xmf¯ns\m¯mhWw F¶mWp ]m¡nØm³ B{Kln¡p¶Xv. Atacn¡bpw AhÀ¡p ]n´pW \ÂIp¶ ]m¡nØm\pw H¶ptNÀ¶v BßmÀYambn B{Kln¨m A^vKm\nØm\n kam[m\w Øm]n¡m\mhpw. ]t£, AhÀ AXn\p Xp\nbnÃ. ]dbp¶Xpt]mse {]hÀ¯n¡m\pÅ acymZsb¦nepw Atacn¡ ImWn¡Wsa¶pw IÀkmbn Bhiys¸Sp¶p.

Xmen_m³ kÀ¡mcns\ ]pd¯m¡n 2001 IÀkmbnsb A^vKm³ {]knUâv ]Z¯n Ahtcm[n¨Xv Atacn¡Xs¶bmWv. F¶mÂ, ]n¶oSp ]et¸mgpw Atacn¡bpsS hcpXnbn \n¡m³ IÀkmbn XbmdmbnÃ. C¯hW sXcsªSp¸n Atacn¡bpsS XmXv]cyw IÀkmbntbmsSm¸ambncp¶nÃ. AXpw Ct¸mgs¯ Atacn¡³ hncp²Xbv¡p ImcWamImw. {]knUâv sXcsªSp¸n hym]Iamb Xncnadn \S¶psh¶mWp IÀkmbnbpw Iq«cpw ]dbp¶Xv. X\n¡p thm«v IpdªXv Cu XncnadnbpsS ^eambncp¶psh¶mWp IÀkmbnbpsS ]cmXn.

Gsd¡mew X§tfmsSm¸w\n¶ IÀkmbnbpsS hnShm§Â {]kwK¯nse ]cmaÀi§Ä Atacn¡³ `cWIqS¯n\p I\¯ BLmXambn. \µntISmWp IÀkmbn ImWn¡p¶sX¶p A^vKm\nØm\nse Atacn¡³ Øm\]Xn Pbnwkv I®nwKmw ]dbp¶p. A^vKm\nØm\pthWvSn Atacn¡ FSp¯ henb XymK§Ä hnkvacn¨psImWvSp \S¯p¶ C¯cw {]XnIcW§Ä Atacn¡³ P\Xsb¯s¶ Ahtlfn¡pIbmsW¶pw Pbnwkv I®nwKmw ]cmXns¸Sp¶p. CsXm¡bmsW¦nepw Atacn¡ A^vKm\nØm\p thWvSn sNbvX Imcy§Ä A^vKm³ P\X ad¡nsöp I®nwKmw Bizkn¡p¶p.

2001 Xmen_m³ `cWIqSs¯ ]pd¯m¡nbtijw Atacn¡bpw kJyI£nIfpw tImSn¡W¡n\p tUmfdmWv A^vKm\nØm\n sNehgn¨Xv. ssk\nI CSs]S henb _m[yXbmbn. \nch[n kJyI£n ssk\nIÀ sImÃs¸«p. apdnthäp \m«nte¡p aS§nb `S·mcpw \nch[nbmWv. Cu hÀjw Ahkm\n¡pt¼mÄ A^vKm\nØm\nÂ\n¶p kJytk\sb ]qÀWambn ]n³hen¡psa¶mbncp¶p _dmIv H_mabpsS {]Jym]\w. F¶mÂ, ]cnioe\¯n\pw aäpambn Ipsd ssk\nIsc ChnsS \ne\nÀ¯m\mWp ]pXnb kpc£mIcmdn [mcWbpÅXv. ]pXnb `cWIqSs¯ Xmen_m\pw aäp Nne Xo{hhmZ {Kq¸pIfpw \ninXambn FXnÀ¡p¶Xn\m {Iakam[m\w \ne\nÀ¯m³ ]pXnb `cWIqS¯n\v Gsd t¢int¡WvSnhcpw.

A^vKm³ {]knUâv sXcsªSp¸nsâ ]qÀW hnhc§Ä C\nbpw ]pd¯ph¶n«nÃ. Atacn¡bpsSbpw sFIycmjv{Sk`bpsSbpw taÂt\m«¯n DWvSm¡nb [mcWb\pkcn¨v Ajvd^v Km\n {]knUâpw cWvSmasX¯nbXmbn ]dbp¶ AÐpÅ AÐpÅ cmPy¯nsâ No^v FIvknIyq«ohv Hm^okdpamIpw.

Ajvd^v Km\n {]knUâmhp¶tXmsS A^vKm\nØm\n Ipsd¡qSn ]nSnapdp¡m\mhpsa¶mWv Atacn¡ IcpXp¶Xv. ]pXnb `cWm[nImcnIÄ¡p ]e h¼³amcpsSbpw ]n´pWbpWvSv. Ajvd^v Km\n ap³ temI_m¦v DtZymKØ\mWv. ]jvXq¬ `qcn]£apÅ Z£nW {]hniyIfn Ajvd^v Km\n¡p \à ]n´pW e`n¨p. ap³ {]knUâv laoZv IÀkmbnbpsS ktlmZc³ J¿mw IÀkmbnbpsS ]n´pWbpw apX¡q«mbn. a\pjymhImi ewL\§fpsS t]cn Btcm]W hnt[b\mb Dkvs_¡nØm\nse ]gb Bbp[ apXemfn djoZv tZmkvXhpambpÅ Km\nbpsS kulrZs¯ kwibt¯msS ho£n¡p¶hcpapWvSv.

Xmen_m\pambn NÀ¨bneqsS {]iv\§Ä ]cnlcn¡Wsa¶ Nn´mKXn¡mc\mWp ]pXnb {]knUâv Ajvd^v Km\nsb¦n Xmen_m\pambn A{X ck¯neà {]knUâv sXcsªSp¸n cWvSmw Øm\s¯¯n [mcWbneqsS No^v FIvknIyq«ohv Hm^okÀ Øm\¯n\p \dp¡phoW AÐpÅ AÐpÅbptSXv. tkmhyäv hncp² t]mcm«¯n Dd¨p\n¶ AÐpÅ hS¡³ XmPnIv {]hniyIfnemWp kzm[o\w sXfnbn¨Xv. djoZv tZmkvX¯nsâ ISp¯ FXncmfnbpw [\mVy\pamb _mÄ¡v {]hniy KhÀWÀ A«m apl½Znsâ Duäamb ]n´pW AÐpÅbv¡pWvSmbncp¶p.

A^vKm³ cmjv{Sob¯n ]nSn¨p\n¡m³ Atacn¡tbmSpÅ Iqdpw, k¼¯pw kzm[o\hpapÅ cmPys¯ {]apJcpsS ]n´pWbpw A\nhmcyamWv. ]ckv]c hncp²amb cmjv{Sob, km¼¯nI XmXv]cy§fpÅhÀ cmPy`cW¯nsâ Xe¸s¯¯pt¼mÄ A^vKm\nØmsâ hcpw\mfpIsf¡pdn¨pÅ Bi¦IÄ XpScpIbmWv. Ajvd^v Km\nsb {]knUâv ]Z¯nencp¯n ]n³koäv `cWw \S¯m³ Atacn¡sb A\phZn¡nsöp Xmen_m³ hyàam¡nbn«pWvSv. CkvemanI cmjv{S¯n\pthWvSnbpÅ t]mcm«w XpScpsa¶pw Xmen_m³ ]dbp¶p.

A^vKm³ cmjv{Sob¯n C´y CSs]SWsa¶v AhnsSbpÅ Nnesc¦nepw B{Kln¡p¶pWvSv. hntZi cmjv{S§fpambn hfsc X{´]camsbmcp \bX{´¯nteÀs¸«pt]mcp¶ {][m\a{´n \tc{µ tamZn A^vKm³ Imcy¯n C\nbpw a\kp Xpd¶n«nÃ. ap³KW\m]«nIbn AXnepw {][m\s¸« ]e Imcy§fpapWvStÃm. hntZiImcya{´n kpjam kzcmPv A^vKm\nØm³ kµÀin¨ncp¶p. cmPyw t\cnSp¶ \nch[nbmb shÃphnfnIsf A`napJoIcn¡m³ C´ybpsS FÃmhn[ klmbhpw kpja hmKvZm\w sNbvXn«pWvSv.

]mÝmXy cmPy§Ä¡pw aäp Nne kplr¯pIÄ¡papÅ XmXv]cyaà C´y¡v A^vKm³ {]iv\¯nepÅsX¶v AhnSs¯ P\§fn \sÃmcp hn`mKw IcpXp¶p. A^vKm³ ]p\cp²mcW {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡p [mcmfw C´y¡mcpsS tkh\w e`n¡p¶pWvSv. Chcn ]ecpw Poh³ ]Wbwh¨mWv AhnsS {]hÀ¯n¡p¶Xv.

A^vKm\nØm\n tkh\{]hÀ¯\§fn GÀs¸«ncp¶ C´y¡mc\mb sPkyq«v sshZnI³ ^m. AeIvknkv t{]wIpamdns\ Ignª Pq¬ BZyhmcw Hcp kwLw Xo{hhmZnIÄ X«ns¡mWvSpt]mbncp¶p. sshZnIsâ tamN\¯n\mbn C´y kPohambn CSs]s«¦nepw CXphsc At±ls¯ IsWvS¯m\mbn«nÃ. Cdm\nepw ]m¡nØm\nepw A`bmÀYnIfmbn Ignªncp¶ A^vKm³ Ip«nIsf ]p\c[nhkn¸n¨ Hcp kvIqfn tPmenIgnªp aS§pt¼mgmbncp¶p ^m. AeIvknkns\ X«ns¡mWvSpt]mbXv. tdmw BØm\ambpÅ sPkyq«v A`bmÀYn tkh\ hn`mK¯nsâ A^vKm\nØm\nse I¬{Sn UbdÎdmbncp¶p ^m. AeIvknkv. 2011emWv Ct±lw A^vKm\nØm\nse¯p¶Xv. AXn\pap¼v Hcp hymgh«¡mew Xangv\m«n {ioe¦³ A`bmÀYnIÄ¡mbpÅ tkh\tI{µ¯n {]hÀ¯n¨p.

A^vKm\nØm\nse IepjnXamb cmjv{Sobm´co£w Ct¸mgs¯ `cWssIamä¯nepw ]cnlcn¡s¸Sm\nSbnÃ. AXpsImWvSpXs¶ A^vKm³ {]iv\¯n Ct¸mÄ kPohambn CSs]Sm³ C´y Cãs¸Sp¶panÃ. \tc{µ tamZnbpsS Atacn¡³ kµÀi\thfbn A^vKm³ hnjbhpw NÀ¨ sN¿s¸Spw. Xmen_ms\ kam[m\]mXbnte¡pw `cWLS\mhcpXnbnte¡pw sImWvSphcnI F¶ Atacn¡bpsS e£yw A{X s]s«¶p km£mXvIcn¡s¸Sm\pw CSbnÃ. Xmen_ms\ Hgnhm¡n A^vKm\nØm\n imizX kam[m\w A{]kàhpamWv.

AÂIzbvZbpambpÅ _Ôw hntÑZn¡pI F¶XmWv Atacn¡ apt¶m«p hbv¡p¶ {][m\ D]m[n. Xmen_ms\ kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw C¯cw _Ô§fneqsSbmWv AhÀ X§fpsS Icp¯v \ne\nÀ¯p¶Xv. A^vKm\nØm\nepw ]m¡nØm\nepsams¡ thcp]nSn¨ncn¡p¶ Xo{hhmZ {]Øm\§sf XIÀ¡m³ Atacn¡bv¡v C´ysbt¸mepÅ cmPy§fpsS klmbw A\nhmcyamWv. AtXkabw Cu {]iv\¯n Atacn¡bpsS Xmf¯ns\m¯p XpÅm³ \ap¡mhnÃXm\pw.


hmÀ[Iyw: hnIk\¯ns\mcp ]pXpiàn

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tPmkv BâWn knFwsF

a\pjykaql¯nsâ hfÀ¨mhgnIfnse hnIk\ZÀi\w a¬adªhcnÂ\n¶p ]IÀ¶p \ÂIs¸«Xpw Pohn¨ncn¡p¶ A\p`hk¼¶cnÂ\n¶p ]¦phbv¡s¸«XpamWv. C§s\ apXnÀ¶ ]uc·mcpsS IgnhpIÄ hnIk\¯nsâ ]pXpiànbmbn amdp¶p. apXnÀ¶ ]uc·mcpsS IgnhpIfpw AdnhpIfpw BtcmKyIcamb hyànXzhpw IpSpw_¯nsâbpw kaql¯nsâbpw k¼ZvhyhØbpsSbpw cmPy¯nsâbpw hnIk\¯n\p ]pXpiànbmbn¯ocpI F¶XmWv Cu hÀjs¯ htbmP\Zn\ ktµiw.

kmaqlyhfÀ¨bn Hmtcm ]uc\pw Xsâ ]¦phln¡m\pWvSv. Adnhnsâbpw A\p`h¯nsâbpw kap¨b¯neqsS ]IzXtbdnb kaql\nÀanXn¡mbn apXnÀ¶ Xeapd Ft¸mgpw IÀa\ncXambncn¡p¶Xp ]pXpXeapdbpsS hnPbhgnIfnse iàntbdnb ]n³_eamWv. AXn\m BtcmKyIcambXpw iàhpamb hmÀ[Iyw Hmtcm XeapdbpsSbpw D¯chmZnXzhpw ISabpamWv. hnhn[ cmPy§Ä hfsc {i²tbmsS CXn\mbpÅ IÀa]cn]mSnIÄ BhnjvIcn¨p \S¸nem¡p¶pWvSv. \½psS cmPy¯v C¶pw CXp e£y¯ntes¡¯nbn«nsöXpw bmYmÀYyamWv.

temI P\kwJybn 60 tImSn BfpIÄ htbmP\§fmWv. `mcX¯nse P\kwJybpsS ]¯nsem¶ne[nIw BfpIÄ Cu KW¯nÂs¸Spw. C\nbpÅ 30 hÀjwsImWvSv P\kwJybpsS ]IpXntbmfambn AhÀ F¯psa¶p IW¡pIÄ kqNn¸n¡p¶p. AXmbXv Ignª 60 hÀj¯n DWvSmb hÀ[\ ASp¯ 30 hÀj¯n kw`hn¡m\pÅ km[yXbmWpÅXv. sa¨s¸« BtcmKyþ NnInÕm kwhn[m\§Ä, hnZym`ymk hfÀ¨, Ipdª P\\ \nc¡v Chsbms¡bmWv AXnsâ apJyImcW§Ä.

Gsd _p²nap«\p`hn¡p¶hcpw AhKWn¡s¸Sp¶hcpambn apXnÀ¶ ]uc·mÀ C¶p amdp¶pWvSv. AXnsâ {][m\ ImcW§Ä Häs¸SÂ, imcocnIþam\knIþssewKnIþkm¼¯nI NqjWw, tcmK§ fpw sshIey§fpw, ASna¯w, km¼¯nI sshjayw, sXmgnÂtaJebn se bphP\ IpSntbäw F¶nhbmsW¶p ]dbmw. ]ecpw hnjmZtcmK¯nse¯ns¸SpIbpw PohnXw ZpcnX]qÀWambn¯ocpIbpw sN¿p¶p. {]mbambhsc NnInÕn¡m\pw t]mäm\pamIm¯ a¡fpsS \nklmbmhØ, IS_m[yX, aZy]m\w, apXnÀ¶hcpsS A¨S¡anÃm¯ PohnXw, [mcmfn¯w, ]nSnhminbpw X¶nãhpw, A[nImc at\m`mhhpw hn«psImSp¡m\pÅ a\xØnXnbnÃm¯Xpw, a¡tfmSpÅ Xncn¨phyXymkw, hnhml_Ô¯nse A]mIXIÄ, D¯chmZn¯clnXamb ]qÀhIme PohnXw ChsbÃmw hmÀ[IyPohnXw ZpcnX]qÀWamIp¶Xn {][m\ ]¦phln¡p¶pWvSv.

dn«bÀsaâv {]mb¯n\ptijhpw Ahcnse IgnhpIfpw AdnhpIfpw D]tbmKs¸Sp¯m\pw kvt\l]cnNcW§fneqsS _豈 kpZrVam¡n BtcmKyPohnX kpc£m kmlNcy§Ä Dd¸phcp¯m\pw {i²n¨m apXnÀ¶ XeapdbpsS PohnXw tim`\am¡mw. hmÀ[Iys¯ Ghcpw AwKoIcn¡pIbpw bmYmÀYyw DÄs¡mÅpIbpw sN¿pI, {]iv\ kmlNcy§fn ]ckv]cw Xpd¶ at\m`mhw hfÀ¯n NÀ¨ sN¿m\pÅ Ahkc§Ä krãn¡pI, IpSpw_þkmaqly _Ôw hfÀ¯pI F¶nhbneqsS IpdhpIÄ ]cnlcn¡m\mIpw.

BtcmKyIcamb hmÀ[IyPohnX¯n\v H¶n¨ptNcÂ, NÀ¨IÄ, ]cnioe\ ]cn]mSnIÄ, hnt\mZ]cn]mSnIÄ, bm{X, `£WþNnInÕm Imcy§fnse IrXyX XpS§nbh klmbn¡pw. BtcmKyIchpw ZoÀLmbpkv \ÂIp¶Xpamb hmÀ[IyIme PohnX¯n\v Gähpw A[nIw kzm[o\w sNep¯m\mIp¶Xv ASp¯ IpSpw_mwK§Ä¡p Xs¶bmWv. ]cnKW\bpw ]cnNcWhpw, £atbmsSbpÅ CSs]SÂ, Bhiy§Ä AdnªpÅ klmbw Chsbms¡ \ÂIWw.

htbman{Xw t]mepÅ ]²XnIÄ {KmaoW taJeIfnepw \S¸mt¡WvSXmWv. Hmtcmcp¯cpw Ah\hsâ aXhnizmk§fn A[njvTnXamb PohnXw \bn¡pIbpw aäpÅhÀ¡p `mcamIm¯hn[wkt´mjhpw kam[m\hpw ]IÀ¶p \ÂIp¶ PohnX{Iaw ioeam¡pIbpw thWw. A§s\ apXnÀ¶ Xeapd kaql¯nsâbpw cmPy¯nsâbpw hnIk\ ]Ùmhn ]pXpiànbmbn Xocpt¼mgmWp hmÀ[Iy¯nepw ip`Icamb `mhn kwPmXamIp¶Xv.

apXnÀ¶htcmSpÅ kvt\lhpw _lpam\hpw IcpXepw `mcXPohnX kwkvImc¯nsâ `mKamWv. Bscbpw XÅn¡fbm¯Xpw FÃmhtcbpw DÄs¡mÅp¶Xpw ]cnKWn¡p¶Xpamb at\m`mhw hfÀ¯nsbSp¯m am{Xta ka{K am\h ]ptcmKXn km[yamIpIbpÅp. Cu bmYmÀYyw DÄs¡mWvSp apXnÀ¶ XeapdbpsS kwc£Whpw \ne\n¸pw C¶nsâ {]tXyI kmlNcy§fn Gsd {]m[m\yt¯msSbpw AXntesd {i²tbmsSbpw \S¸nem¡pt¼mÄ AsXmcp ]pXpiànbmbn¯ocpw.

(shmkmÀUv F¶ k¶²kwLS\bpsS UbdÎdmWp teJI³)






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